HIV infection and AIDS

    Epidemiology, Pathophysiology

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    Clinical features

      AIDS case definition

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      Presentation

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      Complications and co‐morbidities

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      • 63  Martin J, Kaul A, Schacht R. Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis: a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Pediatrics 2012;130:e71013.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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      Disease course and prognosis

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      Investigations

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      Management

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      Dermatological manifestations of HIV infection

        Introduction

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        Pruritus, xerosis and ichthyosis

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        Pigmentary disorders

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        Coagulopathies

        • 175  Sood R, Rakkar AS, Carmosino L, et al. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in HIV infection: a report of two cases. AIDS Patient Care STDS 1996;10:324952.Cross Ref link
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        • 177  Robertson C, Wiselka MJ. Thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura occurring in consecutive pregnancies in an HIV‐infected patient. Int J STD AIDS 2007;18:1423.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 178  Micieli E, Dentali F, Giola M, et al. Venous and arterial thrombosis in patients with HIV infection. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2007;18:25963.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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        Inflammatory dermatoses

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        • 285  Breustedt W, Audring H, Sonnichsen N. Transitory acantholytic dermatosis (Grover) in an HIV infected patient. Z Hautkr 1990;65:7546.Pubmed link
        • 286  Calista D. Subcorneal pustular dermatosis in a patient with AIDS. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003;17:46990.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 287  Emadi SN, Izadi M, Poursaleh Z, Akhavan‐Moghaddam J, Barikbin B, Emadi SE. Darier disease associated with HIV infection: a case report. HIV Clin Trials 2011;12(1):4853.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 288  Bull RH, Fallowfield ME, Marsden RA. Autoimmune blistering diseases associated with HIV infection. Clin Exp Dermatol 1994;19:4750.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 289  Kinloch‐de Loes S, Didierjean L, Rieckhoff‐Cantoni L, et al. Bullous pemphigoid autoantibodies, HIV‐infection and pruritic papular eruption. AIDS 1991;5:4514.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 290  De D, Kanwar AJ, Radotra BD, Narang T. Bullous eruption in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Skinmed 2008;7(2):98101.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 291  Lish KM, Washenik K, Yancey KB, et al. Anti‐epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid in a patient with HIV. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;36:4868.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 292  Demathé A, Arede LT, Miyahara GI. Mucous membrane pemphigoid in HIV patient: a case report. Cases J 2008;1(1):345.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 293  Mahe A, Flageul B, Prost C, Intrato L. Pemphigus vegetans in an HIV‐infected man. Clin Exp Dermatol 1994;19:447.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 294  Cunha P, Focaccia R, Diaz L. Evolution of endemic pemphigus foliaceus after HIV‐1 infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995;32:80911.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 295  Splaver A, Silos S, Lowell B, et al. Case report: pemphigus vulgaris in a patient infected with HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2000;14:2956.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 296  Tull T, Papineni P, Cook C, et al. Paraneoplastic pemphigus in patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Exp Dermatol 2014;39:835.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 297  Mitsuhashi Y, Hohl D. Dermatitis herpetiformis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome‐related complex. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:583.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 298  Hasson A, Gutierrez MC, Martin L, et al. Dermatitis herpetiformis and AIDS‐related complex. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;22:111719.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 299  Tong TK, Andrew LR, Albert A, Mickell JJ. Childhood acquired immunodeficiency syndrome manifesting as acrodermatitis enteropathica. J Pediatr 1986;108:4268.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 300  Reichel M, Mauro TM, Ziboh VA, et al. Acrodermatitis enteropathica in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1992;128:41517.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 301  Chetty R, Bramdev A, Govender D. Cytomegalovirus induced syringosquamous metaplasia. Am J Dermatopathol 1999;21:487900.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 302  Rongioletti F, Ghigliotti G, De Marchi R, Rebora A. Cutaneous mucinoses and HIV infection. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:107780.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 303  Morris‐Jones R, Mallon E, Francis N, et al. Reticular erythematous mucinosis associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Retinoids 2001;17:557.
        • 304  Tarantini G, Zerboni R, Muratori S, et al. Lichen myxoedematosus in a patient with AIDS. Br J Dermatol 1996;134:11224.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 305  Azana JM, De Misa RF, Casado J, et al. Papular mucinosis associated with human‐immunodeficiency‐virus infection. Int J Dermatol 1996;35:6524.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 306  Dominguez Auñon JD, Postigo Llorente C, Llamas Martin R, et al. Lichen myxoedematosus associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection – report of two cases and review of the literature. Clin Exp Dermatol 1997;22:2658.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 307  Abbott RA, Calonje E, Almaani N, Kulasegram R, McGibbon D. Widespread papules in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus. Papular mucinosis (PM) in association with HIV infection. Clin Exp Dermatol 2010;35(7):8012.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 308  Daudén E, Martin R, Feal C, et al. Eccrine ductal mucinosis in a human immunodeficiency virus‐positive patient with probable scabies. Br J Dermatol 2000;143:13356.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 309  Yachoui R, Traisak P, Jagga S. Scleredema in a patient with AIDS‐related lipodystrophy syndrome. Case Rep Endocrinol 2013;2013:article 943798.Pubmed link
        • 310  Bachelez H, Hadida F, Parizot C, et al. Oligoclonal expansion of HIV‐specific cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes in the skin of HIV‐1 infected patients with cutaneous pseudolymphoma. J Clin Invest 1998;101:250616.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 311  Friedler S, Parisi MT, Waldo E, et al. Atypical cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder in patients with HIV infection. Int J Dermatol 1999;38:11118.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 312  Schartz NEC, de la Blanchardiére A, Alaoui S, et al. Regression of CD8+ pseudolymphoma after HIV antiviral triple therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;49:13941.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 313  Egbers RG, Do TT, Su L, Helfrich YR, Gudjonsson JE. Rapid clinical change in lesions of atypical cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder in an HIV patient: a case report and review of the literature. Dermatol Online J 2011;17(9):4.Pubmed link
        • 314  Fernández‐Morano T, Aguilar‐Bernier M, Del Boz J, Fúnez‐Liébana R. Cutaneous CD8+ T‐cell infiltrates associated with human immunodeficiency virus. Actas Dermo‐sifiliográficas 2012;103(7):63840.Cross Ref link
        • 315  Pitamber HV, Grayson W. Five cases of cutaneous Rosai–Dorfman disease. Clin Exp Dermatol 2003;28:1721.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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        • 317  Saez‐de‐Ocariz M, Duran‐McKinster C, Orozo‐Covarrubias L, Ruiz‐Maldonado R. Dermatitis artefacta in a teenager after awareness of his HIV‐positive diagnosis. Clin Exp Dermatol 2005;30:923.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Erythroderma

        • 318  Morar N, Dlova N, Gupta AK, et al. Erythroderma: a comparison between HIV positive and negative patients. Int J Dermatol 1999;38:895900.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 319  Bunker CB. Male Genital Skin Disease. London: Saunders, 2004.
        • 320  Carr ND, Mercey D, Slack WW. Non‐condylomatous perianal skin disease in homosexual men. Br J Surg 1989;76:10646.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 321  Denis BJ, May T, Bigard MA, Canton P. Anal and perianal lesions in symptomatic HIV infections. Prospective study of a series of 190 patients. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1992;16:14854.Pubmed link
        • 322  Yuhan R, De Orsay CI, Pino A, et al. Anorectal disease in HIV‐infected patients. Dis Colon Rectum 1998;41:136770.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Seborrhoeic dermatitis

        • 323  Schaub NA, Drewe J, Sponagel L, et al. Is there a relation between risk groups or initial CD4 T cell counts and prevalence of seborrheic dermatitis in HIV‐infected patients? Dermatology 1999;198:1269.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 324  Schechtman RC, Midgley G, Hay RJ. HIV disease and Malassezia yeasts: a quantitative study of patients presenting with seborrhoeic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 1995;133:6948.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 325  Pechère M, Saurat J‐H. Malassezia yeast density in HIV‐positive individuals. Br J Dermatol 1997;136:1389.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 326  Wikler JR, Nieboer C, Willemze R. Quantitiative skin cultures of Pityrosporum yeasts in patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus with and without seborrheic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;27:379.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 327  Coldiron BM, Bergstresser PR. Prevalence and spectrum of skin disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 1989;125:35761.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 328  Groisser D, Bottone EJ, Lebwohl M. Association of Pityrosporum orbiculare (Malassezia furfur) with seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;20:7703.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 329  Cedeno‐Laurent F, Gómez‐Flores M, Mendez N, et al. New insights into HIV‐1‐primary skin disorders. J Int AIDS Soc 2011;14:5.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 330  Vidal C, Girard P‐M, Dompmartin D, et al. Seborrhoeic dermatitis and HIV infection: qualitative analysis of skin surface lipids in men seropositive and seronegative for HIV. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:110610.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 331  Basset‐Seguin N, Sotto A, Guillot B, et al. Zinc status in HIV‐infected patients: relation to the presence or absence of seborrhoeic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:2768.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 332  Kaplan MH, Sadick N, McNutt NS, et al. Dermatologic findings and manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). J Am Acad Dermatol 1987;16:485506.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 333  Duvic M. Papulosquamous disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:52330.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 334  Hira SK, Wadhawan D, Kamanga J, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of human immuno‐deficiency virus in Lusaka, Zambia. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;19:4517.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 335  Soeprono FF, Schinella RA, Cockerell CJ, Comite SL. Seborrhoeic‐like dermatitis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;14:2428.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 336  De Moraes AP, de Arruda EA, Vitoriano MA, et al. An open‐label efficacy pilot study with pimecrolimus cream 1% in adults with facial seborrhoeic dermatitis infected with HIV. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2007;21:596601.Pubmed link

        Atopic dermatitis

        • 337  Prose NS. Cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection in children. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:54350.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 338  Ball LM, Harper JI. Atopic eczema in HIV seropositive haemophiliacs. Lancet 1987;ii:6278.Cross Ref link
        • 339  Cedeno‐Laurent F, Gómez‐Flores M, Mendez N, et al. New insights into HIV‐1‐primary skin disorders. J Int AIDS Soc 2011;14:5.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 340  Bowser CS, Kaye J, Joks RO, et al. IgE and atopy in perinatally HIV‐infected children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2007;18:298303.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 341  Parkin JM, Eales LJ, Galazka AR, Pinching AJ. Atopic manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: response to recombinant interferon gamma. BMJ 1987;294:11856.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 342  Lin RY, Smith JK. IgE and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann Allergy 1988;61:26972.Pubmed link
        • 343  Duvic M. Papulosquamous disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:52330.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 344  Cockerell CJ. Non‐infectious inflammatory skin diseases in HIV‐infected individuals. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:53142.Pubmed link
        • 345  Ring J, Froschl M, Brunner R, Braun‐Falco O. LAV/HTLV III infection and atopy: serum IgE and specific IgE antibodies to environmental allergens. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1986;66:5302.
        • 346  Magnan A, Vervloet D. Le SIDA: un modèle pour l'étude de l'atopie? Rev Mal Respir 1995;12:17783.Pubmed link
        • 347  Nissen D, Nolte HP, Ermin H, et al. Evaluation of IgE‐sensitization to fungi in HIV postitive patients with eczematous skin reactions. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83:1539.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Psoriasis

        • 348  Duvic M. Papulosquamous disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:52330.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 349  Mallon E, Bunker CB. HIV‐associated psoriasis. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2000;14:23946.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 350  Colebunders R, Blot K, Meriens V, Dock P. Psoriasis regression in terminal AIDS. Lancet 1992;339:1110.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 351  Porras B, Costner M, Friedman‐Kien AE, Cockerell CJ. Update on cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection. Med Clin North Am 1998;82:103380.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 352  Finkelstein M, Berman B. HIV and AIDS in inpatient dermatology. Approach to the consultation. Dermatol Clin 2000;18:50920.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 353  Namazi MR. Paradoxical exacerbation of psoriasis in AIDS: proposed explanations including the potential roles of substance P and Gram‐negative bacteria. Autoimmunity 2004;37:6771.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 354  Morar N, Willis‐Owen SA, Maurer T, Bunker CB. HIV associated psoriasis: pathogenesis, clinical features and management. Lancet Inf Dis 2010;10:4708.Cross Ref link
        • 355  Cedeno‐Laurent F, Gómez‐Flores M, Mendez N, et al. New insights into HIV‐1‐primary skin disorders. J Int AIDS Soc 2011;14:5.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 356  Mallon E, Young D, Bunce M, et al. HLA‐Cw*0602 and HIV associated psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:52733.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 357  Mallon E, Bunce M, Savoie H, et al. HLA‐C and guttate psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 2000;143:117782.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 358  Ranki A, Lauharanta J, Kanerva L. Effect of etretinate on the distribution of Langerhans cells and T lymphocytes in psoriatic skin. Arch Dermatol Res 1984;276:1024.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 359  Kalter DC, Gendelman HE, Meltzer MS. Monocytes, dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells in immunodeficiency virus infection. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:41528.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 360  Van Neer F, Zemelman V, Cerio R, et al. The role of factor XIIIa‐positive dermal dendrocytes in HIV‐1‐positive psoriatics. Br J Dermatol 1993;128:2933.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 361  Zemelman V, Van Neer F, Roberts N, et al. Epidermal Langerhans cells, HIV‐1 infection and psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1994;130:30711.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 362  Kopp JB, Rooney JF, Wohlenberg C, et al. Cutaneous disorders and viral gene expression in HIV‐1 transgenic mice. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus 1993;9:26775.Cross Ref link
        • 363  Chen H, Hayashi G, Lai OY, et al. Psoriasis patients are enriched for genetic variants that protect against HIV‐1 disease. PLOS Genet 2010;8(2):e1002514.Cross Ref link
        • 364  Williams HC, Du Vivier AW. Etretinate and AIDS‐related Reiter's disease. Br J Dermatol 1991;124:38992.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 365  Blanche P. Acitretin and AIDS‐related Reiter's disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1999;17:1056.Pubmed link
        • 366  Smith KJ, Skelton HG, Angritt P. Changes of verruciform xanthoma in an HIV‐1 patient wih diffuse psoriasiform skin disease. Am J Dermatol 1995;17:1858.Cross Ref link
        • 367  Menon K, Van Voorhees A, Bebo BF, et al. Psoriasis in patients with HIV infection: from the Medical Board of the National Psoriasis Foundation. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010;62:2919.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 368  Vano‐Galvan S, Jaen P. Severe psoriasis due to cessation of antiretroviral therapy in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus. Isr Med Assoc J 2008;10(7):5578.Pubmed link
        • 369  Ranki A, Puska P, Mattinen S, et al. Effect of PUVA on immunologic and virologic findings in HIV‐infected patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;24:40410.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 370  Breuer‐McHam J, Marshall G, Adu‐Oppong A, et al. Alterations in HIV expression in AIDS patients with psoriasis and pruritus treated with phototherapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;40:4860.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 371  Akaraphanth R, Lim HW. HIV, UV and immunosuppression. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1999;15:2831.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 372  Houpt KR, Beer JZ, Horn TD, et al. Ultraviolet therapy of HIV‐infected individuals: a panel discussion. Semin Cutan Med Surg 1997;16:2415.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 373  Horn TD, Morison WL, Farzadegan H, et al. Effects of psoralens plus UVA radiation (PUVA) on HIV‐1 in human beings: a pilot study. J Am Acad Dermatol 1994;31:73540.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 374  Morison WL. PUVA therapy is preferable to UVB phototherapy in the management of HIV‐associated dermatoses. Photochem Photobiol 1996;64:2678.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 375  Tourne L, Dures P, Van Vooren JP, et al. Alleviation of HIV‐associated psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis with cyclosporine. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;37:5012.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 376  Allen BR. Use of cyclosporin for psoriasis in HIV‐positive patient. Lancet 1992;339:686.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 377  Stashower ME, Yeager JK, Smith KJ, et al. Cimetidine as therapy for treatment‐resistant psoriasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1993;129:84850.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 378  Smith KJ, Decker C, Yeager J, Skelton HG, Baskin S. Therapeutic efficacy of carbamazepine in a HIV‐1‐positive patient with psoriatic erythroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;37:8514.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 379  Berthelot P, Guglielminotti C, Fresard A, et al. Dramatic cutaneous psoriasis improvement in a patient with the human immunodeficiency virus treated with 2,3‐dideoxycytidine and ritonavir. Arch Dermatol 1997;133:531.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 380  Fischer T, Schworer H, Vente C, et al. Clinical improvement of HIV‐associated psoriasis parallels a reduction of HIV viral load induced by effective antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 1999;13:6289.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 381  Aboulafia DM, Bundow D, Wilske K, Ochs UL. Etanercept for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus associated psoriatic arthritis. May Clin Proc 2000;75:10938.Cross Ref link
        • 382  Sellam J, Bouvard B, Masson C, et al. Use of infliximab to treat psoriatic arthritis in HIV‐positive patients. Joint Bone Spine 2007;74:197200.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 383  Dichmann S, Mrowietz U, Schopf E, Norgauer J. Humanized monoclonal anti‐CD2 antibody as a novel therapeutic option in HIV‐associated psoriatic erythroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:6356.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Eosinophilic folliculitis

        • 384  Ferrandiz C, Ribera M, Barranco JC, et al. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Int J Dermatol 1992;31:1935.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 385  Fearfield LA, Rowe A, Francis N, et al. Itchy folliculitis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: clinicopathological and immunological features, pathogenesis and treatment. Br J Dermatol 1999;141:311.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 386  Teofoli P, Barbieri C, Pallotta S, et al. Pruritic eosinophilic papular eruption revealing HIV infection. Eur J Dermatol 2002;12:6002.Pubmed link
        • 387  Toutous‐Trellu L, Abraham S, Pechere M, et al. Topical tacrolimus for effective treatment of eosinophilic folliculitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Dermatol 2005;141(10):12038.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 388  Budavari JM, Grayson W. Papular follicular eruptions in human immunodeficiency virus‐positive patients in South Africa. Int J Dermatol 2007;46:70610.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 389  Afonso JPJM, Tomimori J, Michalan, NS et al. Pruritic papular eruption and eosinophilic folliculitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a histopathological and immunohistochemical comparative study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012;67:26975.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 390  Amerio P, Verdolini R, Proietto G, et al. Role of Th2 cytokines, RANTES and eotaxin in AIDS‐associated eosinophilic folliculitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 2001;81:925.Cross Ref link
        • 391  Aires JM, Rosatelli JB, de Castro Figueiredo JF, Roselino AM. Cytokines in the pruritic papular eruption of HIV. Int J Dermatol 2000;39:9036.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 392  Yokobayashi H, Sugaya M, Miyagaki T, et al. Analysis of serum chemokine levels in patients with HIV‐associated eosinophilic folliculitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2013;27:e2126.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 393  Roos TC, Albrecht H. Foscarnet‐associated eosinophilic folliculitis in a patient with AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:5467.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 394  Vin‐Christian K, Epstein JH, Maurer TA, et al. Photosensitivity in HIV‐infected individuals. J Dermatol 2000;27:3619.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 395  Holmes RB, Martins C, Horn T. The histopathology of folliculitis in HIV‐infected patients. J Cutan Pathol 2002;29:935.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 396  Costner M, Cockerell CJ. The changing spectrum of the cutaneous manifestations of HIV disease. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1290.Pubmed link
        • 397  Rajendran PM, Dolev JC, Heaphy MR, Jr, Maurer T. Eosinophilic folliculitis before and after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:122731.Pubmed link
        • 398  Kuwano Y, Watanabe R, Fujimoto M, et al. Treatment of HIV‐associated eosinophilic pustular folliculitis with narrow‐band UVB. Int J Dermatol 2006;45:12657.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 399  Harris DW, Ostlere L, Buckley C et al. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in an HIV‐positive man: response to cetirizine. Br J Dermatol 1992;126:3924.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 400  Bunker CB. Dermatological problems in HIV and AIDS. In: Miller A, ed. Medical Management of HIV and AIDS. London: Springer, 1996.
        • 401  Downs AM, Lear JT, Oxley JD, Kennedy CT. AIDS associated eosinophilic folliculitis which responded to both high dose co‐trimoxazole and low dose isotretinoin. Sex Transm Infect 1998;74:22930.Pubmed link
        • 402  Finkelstein M, Berman B. HIV and AIDS in inpatient dermatology. Approach to the consultation. Dermatol Clin 2000;18:50920.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 403  Toutous‐Trellu L, Abraham S, Pechère M, et al. Topical tacrolimus for effective treatment of eosinophilic folliculitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:12038.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 404  Maurer TA. Dermatologic manifestations of HIV infection. Top HIV Med 2005;13:14954.Pubmed link
        • 405  Nerv SJ, Scwartz RA, Dmochowski M. Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis: a 40 year retrospect. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55:2859.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Pruritic papular eruption

        • 406  Hira SK, Wadhawan D, Kamanga J, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of human immuno‐deficiency virus in Lusaka, Zambia. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;19:4517.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 407  Rosen T. Pruritic papular eruption of AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;25:8667.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 408  Boonchai W, Laohasrisakul R, Manonukul J, Kulthanan K. Pruritic papular eruption in HIV seropositive patients: a cutaneous marker for immunosuppression. Int J Dermatol 1999;38:34850.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 409  Resneck JS, Jr, Van Beek M, Furmanski L, et al. Etiology of pruritic papular eruption with HIV infection in Uganda. JAMA 2004;292:261421.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 410  Ramos H, Pagliari C, Takakura CF, et al. Pruritic papular eruption associated with HIV‐etiopathogenesis evaluated by clinical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis. J Dermatol 2005;32:54956.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 411  Palungwachira P, Chirachanakul P, Palungwachira P, et al. Cutaneous findings in HIV‐1 positive patients in Thailand. J Dermatol 2000;28:5845.Cross Ref link
        • 412  Rosatelli JB, Roselino AM. Hyper‐IgE, eosinophilia, and immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to insect antigens in the pruritic papular eruption of human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 2001;137:6723.Pubmed link
        • 413  Kinloch‐de Loes S, Didierjean L, Rieckhoff‐Cantoni L, et al. Bullous pemphigoid autoantibodies, HIV‐infection and pruritic papular eruption. AIDS 1991;5:4514.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 414  Aires JM, Rosatelli JB, de Castro Figueiredo JF, Roselino AM. Cytokines in the pruritic papular eruption of HIV. Int J Dermatol 2000;39:9036.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 415  Amerio P, Verdolini R, Proietto G, et al. Role of Th2 cytokines, RANTES and eotaxin in AIDS‐associated eosinophilic folliculitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 2001;81:925.Cross Ref link
        • 416  Afonso JPJM, Tomimori J, Michalany NS, et al. Pruritic papular eruption and eosinophilic folliculitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a histopathological and immunohistochemical comparative study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012;67:26975.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 417  Yokobayashi H, Sugaya M, Miyagaki T, et al. Analysis of serum chemokine levels in patients with HIV‐associated eosinophilic folliculitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2013;27:e21216.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 418  Gelfand JM, Rudikoff D. Evaluation and treatment of itching in HIV‐infected patients. Mt Sinai J Med 2001;68:298308.Pubmed link
        • 419  Finkelstein M, Berman B. HIV and AIDS in inpatient dermatology. Approach to the consultation. Dermatol Clin 2000;18:50920.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 420  Berman B, Flores F, Burke G. Efficacy of pentoxifylline in the treatment of the pruritic papular eruption of HIV‐infected persons. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:9559.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 421  Pardo RJ, Bogaert MA, Penneys NS, et al. UVB phototherapy of the pruritic papular eruption of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26:4238.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 422  Navarini AA, Stoeckle M, Navarini S, et al. Antihistamines are superior to topical steroids in managing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‐associated papular pruritic eruption. Int J Dermatol 2010;49:836.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Granuloma annulare

        • 423  Cohen PR, Grossman ME, Silvers DN, DeLeo VA. Human immunodeficiency virus‐associated granuloma annulare. Int J STD AIDS 1991;2:16871.Pubmed link
        • 424  O'Moore EJ, Nandawani R, Uthayakumar S, et al. HIV‐associated granuloma annulare (HAGA): a report of 6 cases. Br J Dermatol 2000;142:10546.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 425  Huerter CJ, Bass J, Bergfeld WF, Tubbs RR. Perforating granuloma annulare in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Immunohistologic evaluation of the cellular infiltrate. Arch Dermatol 1987;123:121720.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 426  Morris SD, Cerio R, Paige DG. An unusual presentation of diffuse granuloma annulare in an HIV‐positive patient – immunohistochemical evidence of predominant CD8 lymphocytes. Clin Exp Dermatol 2002;27:2058.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 427  Devesa Parente JA, Dores JAM, Aranha, JMP. Generalized perforating granuloma annulare: case report. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2012;20:2602.Pubmed link
        • 428  Kapembwa MS, Goolamali SK, Price A, Boyle S. Granuloma annulare masquerading as molluscum contagiosum‐like eruption in an HIV‐positive African woman. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;49:S1846.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 429  Penas PF, Jones‐Caballero M, Garcia‐Diez A. Association between zalcitabine therapy for human immunodeficiency virus and granuloma annulare? Arch Dermatol 2001;137:964.Pubmed link

        Porphyria cutanea tarda

        • 430  Blauvelt A, Harris HR, Hogan DJ, et al. Porphyria cutanea tarda and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Int J Dermatol 1992;31:4749.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 431  Hassoun A, Corman L, Ibrahim F. Images in HIV/AIDS. An HIV‐infected women with porphyria cutanea tarda. AIDS Read 2008;18:2712.Pubmed link
        • 432  Binet H, Simonart T, Van Vooren JP, et al. Porphyria cutanea tarda in a human immunodeficiency virus‐infected patient: treatment with N‐acetyl‐cysteine. Int J Dermatol 1998;37:71819.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Drug reactions

        • 433  Coopman SA, Stern RS. Cutaneous drug reactions in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:71417.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 434  Coopman SA, Johnson RA, Platt R, Stern RS. Cutaneous disease and drug reaction in HIV infection. N Engl J Med 1993;328:16704.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 435  Heller HM. Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus‐1 infection. Clin Dermatol 2000;18:4859.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 436  Todd G. Adverse cutaneous drug eruptions and HIV: a clinician's global perspective. Dermat Clin 2006;24:45972.Cross Ref link
        • 437  Morar N, Dlova N, Gupta AK, et al. Erythroderma: a comparison between HIV positive and negative patients. Int J Dermatol 1999;38:895900.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 438  Okwera A, Johnson JL, Vjecha MJ, et al. Risk factors for adverse drug reactions during thiacetazone treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1997;1:4415.Pubmed link
        • 439  Bunker CB, Staughton RCD. HIV‐associated disease: dermatology. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:11539.
        • 440  Rustin MHA, Bunker CB, Dowd PM, Robinson TWE. Erythema multiforme due to griseofulvin. Br J Dermatol 1989;120:4558.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 441  Penneys MS. Skin Manifestations of AIDS. London: Martin Dunitz, 1990.Pubmed link
        • 442  Rotunda A, Hirsch RJ, Scheinfeld N, Weinberg JM. Severe cutaneous reactions associated with the use of human immunodeficiency virus medications. Acta Derm Venereol 2003;83:19.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 443  Rzany B, Mockenhaupt M, Stocker U, et al. Incidence of Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Germany. Arch Dermatol 1993;129:1059.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 444  Bilu D, Mamelak AJ, Nguyen RH‐N, et al. Clinical and epidemiologic characterization of photosensitivity in HIV‐positive individuals. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2004;20:17583.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 445  Gherardi R, Belec L, Mhiri C, et al. The spectrum of vasculitis in human immunodeficiency virus‐infected patients: a clinicopathological evaluation. Arthritis Rheum 1993;36:116474.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 446  Smith KJ, Skelton HG, Tuur S, et al. Increased cutaneous toxicity to ionizing radiation in HIV‐positive patients. Military Medical Consortium for the Advancement of Retroviral Research (MMCARR). Int J Dermatol 1997;36:77982.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 447  Viswanath BK, Ranka P, Ramanjanayalu M. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions due to isoniazid in a HIV positive patient. Indian J Lepr 2012;84(3):22732.Pubmed link
        • 448  Bedimo RJ, Geisler WM. Phenytoin hypersensitivity syndrome masquerading as fever and systemic illness of unknown origin in an HIV‐infected patient. Int J STD AIDS 2005;16:1789.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 449  Myers KW, Katial RK, Engler RJ. Probenecid hypersensitivity in AIDS: a case report. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998;80:41618.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 450  Kovacs JA, Masur H. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: therapy and prophylaxis. J Infect Dis 1988;158:2549.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 451  Battegay M, Opravil M, Wuthrich B, Luthy R. Rash with amoxicillin–clavulanate therapy in HIV‐infected patients. Lancet 1989;ii:1100.Cross Ref link
        • 452  Duvic M, Reisman M, Finley V, et al. Glucan‐induced keratoderma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1987;123:7516.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 453  Caumes E, Katlama C, Guermonprez G, et al. Cutaneous side‐effects of bleomycin in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet 1990;336:1593.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 454  Nandwani R, Money‐Kyrle J, Hawkins DA, et al. Bleomycin‐induced flagellate dermatitis in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1995;4:8993.Cross Ref link
        • 455  Kreuter A, Gambichler T, Schlottman R, et al. Psoriasiform pustular eruptions from pegylated‐liposomal doxorubicin in AIDS‐related Kaposi's sarcoma. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 2001;81:224.Cross Ref link
        • 456  Jones RS, Jr, Collier‐Brown C, Suh B. Localized cutaneous reaction to intravenous pentamidine. Clin Infect Dis 1992;15:5612.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 457  Fegeux S, Salmon D, Picard C, et al. Penile ulcerations with foscarnet. Lancet 1990;335:547.Cross Ref link
        • 458  Virgili A, Corazza M, Lombardi AR, Sighinolfi L. Cutaneous ulcers due to interferon seem not to be related to the dosage. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1999;13:1413.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 459  Laughon SK, Shinn LL, Nunley JR. Melanonychia and mucucutaneous hyperpigmentation due to hydroxyurea use in an HIV‐infected patient. Int J Dermatol 2000;39:92831.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 460  Hoegl L, Thoma‐Greber E, Poppinger J, Rocken M. Butyl nitrite‐induced acrocyanosis in an HIV‐infected patient. Arch Dermatol 1999;135:901.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 461  Bhaijee F, Wainwright H, Meintjes G, et al. Warfarin‐induced skin necrosis in HIV‐1‐infected patients with tuberculosis and venous thrombosis. S Afr Med J 2010;100(6):3727.Pubmed link
        • 462  Ward HA, Russo GG, Shrum J. Cutaneous manifestations of anti‐retroviral therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;46:28493.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 463  Kong HH, Myers SA. Cutaneous effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV‐infected patients. Dermatol Ther 2005;18:5866.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 464  Martins CR. Cutaneous drug reactions associated with newer antiretroviral agents. J Drugs Dermatol 2006;5:97682.Pubmed link
        • 465  Lockhart SM, Rathbun RC, Stephens JR, et al. Cutaneous reactions with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a report of nine cases. AIDS 2007;21:13703.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 466  Shilad A, Predanic M, Perni SC, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus, pregnancy and Stevens‐Johnson syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:12546.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 467  Calista D. Maculo‐papular rash induced by lopinavir/ritonavir. Eur J Dermatol 2005;15:978.Pubmed link
        • 468  Ouagari Z, Tubiana R, Mohand HA, et al. Skin rash associated with atazanavir: report of three cases. AIDS 2006;20:12078.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 469  Warren KJ, Boxwell DE, Kim NY, Drolet BA. Nevirapine‐associated Stevens–Johnson syndrome. Lancet 1997;351:567.Cross Ref link
        • 470  Fortuny C, Vicente MA, Medina MM, Gonzalez‐Ensenat A. Rash as side‐effect of nelfinavir in children. AIDS 2000;14:3356.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 471  Phan TG, Wong RC, Crotty K, Adelstein S. Toxic epidermal necrolysis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with intravenous gammaglobulin. Australas J Dermatol 1999;40:1537.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 472  Carr DF, Chaponda M, Jorgensen AL, et al. Association of human leukocyte antigen alleles and nevirapine hypersensitivity in a Malawian HIV‐infected population. Clin Infect Dis 2013;56(9):13309.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 473  Tan A, Tan HH, Lee CC, Ng SK. Treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis in AIDS with intravenous immunoglobulins. Clin Exp Dermatol 2003;28:26971.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 474  Bourezane Y, Salard D, Hoen B, et al. DRESS (drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome associated with nevirapine therapy. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:13212.Pubmed link
        • 475  Phillips EJ, Knowles SR, Shear N. Cutaneous manifestations of antiviral therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;48:9856.Cross Ref link
        • 476  Waters LJ, Mandalia S, Gazzard B, Nelson M. Prospective HLA‐B*5701 screening and abacavir hypersensitivity: a single centre experience. AIDS 2007;21:25334.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 477  Bhandarkar AP, Kop PB, Pai VV. Nevirapine induced exfoliative dermatitis in an HIV‐infected patient. Indian J Pharmacol 2011;43(6):7389.Pubmed link
        • 478  Aquilina C, Viraben R, Roueire A. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: a cutaneous adverse effect due to prophylactic antiviral therapy with protease inhibitor. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:21601.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 479  Ghosn J, Duvivier C, Tubiana R, et al. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by HIV postexposure prophylaxis with lopinavir‐ritonavir. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:13601.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 480  Demoley P, Messaad D, Trylesinski A, et al. Nelfinavir‐induced urticaria and successful desensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:8756.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 481  Rietsema WJ. Fever, erythroderma, abdominal pain, and renal failure following initiation of indinavir therapy. Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:12689.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 482  Kainer MA, Mijch A. Anaphylactoid reaction, angioedema, and urticaria associated with lamivudine. Lancet 1996;348:1519.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 483  Kawsar M, El‐Gadi S. Subcutaneous granulomatous lesions related to ritonavir therapy in a HIV infected patient. Int J STD AIDS 2002;13:2734.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 484  Rouanet I, Jantac M, Lechiche C, Hope‐Rapp E, Sotto A. Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis in an HIV‐1‐infected patient. AIDS, 2012;26(6):7756.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 485  Garcia‐Silva J, Almargo M, Juega J, et al. Protease inhibitor‐related paronychia, ingrown toenails, desquamative cheilitis and cutaneous xerosis. AIDS 2000;14:128991.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 486  Smith KJ, Yeager J, Skelton H. Fixed drug eruption to human immunodeficiency virus‐1 protease inhibitor. Cutis 2000;66:2932.Pubmed link
        • 487  Winter AJ, Pywell JM, Ilchyshyn JM, et al. Photosensitivity due to saquinavir. Genitourin Med 1997;73:323.Pubmed link
        • 488  Newell A, Avila C, Rodgers ME. Photosensitivity reaction of efavirenz. Sex Transm Infect 2000;76:221.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 489  Treudler R, Husak R, Raisova M, et al. Efavirenz‐induced photoallergic dermatitis in HIV. AIDS 2001;15:10856.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 490  Aquilina C, Viraben R. Gynaecomastia in a male patient during stavudine and didanosine treatment for HIV infection. Int J STD AIDS 2001;12:4812.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 491  Fox PA, Boag FC, Hawkins DA, Francis N. Acute porphyria following commencement of indinavir. AIDS 1999;13:6223.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 492  Popp AL, Armstrong D, Sepkowitz KA. Recurrent panniculitis in a patient receiving protease inhibitor therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:9367.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 493  Colebunders R, De Droogh E, Pelgrom Y, et al. Painful hyperaesthesia caused by protease inhibitors? Infection 1998;26:2501.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 494  Maggi P, Ladisa N, Cinori E, et al. Cutaneous injection site reactions to long‐term therapy with enfuvirtide. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;53:67881.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 495  Shahar E, Moar C, Pollack S. Successful desensitisation of enfuvirtide‐induced skin hypersensitivity reaction. AIDS 2005;19:4512.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 496  Wallace BJ, Tan KB, Pett SL, Cooper DA, Kossard S, Whitfeld MJ. Enfuvirtide injection site reactions: a clinical and histopathological appraisal. Australas J Dermatol 2012;52(1):1926.Cross Ref link
        • 497  Eliaszewicz M, Flahault A, Roujeau J‐C, et al. Prospective evaluation of risk factors of cutaneous drug reactions to sulfonamides in patients with AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:406.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 498  Akerlund B, Tynell E, Bratt G, et al. N‐Acetylcysteine treatment and the risk of toxic reactions to trimethoprim–sulphamethoxazole in primary Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis in HIV‐infected patients. J Infect 1997;35:1437.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 499  Rey D, Partisani M, Krantz V, et al. Prednisolone does not prevent the occurrence of nevirapine‐induced rashes. AIDS 1999;13:2307.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 500  Demoley P, Messaad D, Fabre J, et al. Nevirapine‐induced cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions and successful tolerance induction. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104:5045.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 501  Hawkins T. Appearance‐related side effects of HIV‐1 treatment. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2006;20:618.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 502  Burgess CM, Quiroga RM. Assessment of the safety and efficacy of poly‐L‐lactic acid for the treatment of HIV‐associated facial lipoatrophy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52:2339.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 503  Graber AL. Syndrome of lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance and diabetes in treated patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Endocr Pract 2001;7:4307.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 504  Mallon PW, Cooper DA, Carr A. HIV‐associated lipodystrophy. HIV Med 2001;2:16673.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 505  Holstein A, Plaschke A, Egberts EH. Lipodystrophy and metabolic disorders as complication of antiretroviral therapy of HIV infection. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2001;109:38992.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 506  Kester KE, Visvesara GS, McEvoy C. Reduction of buffalo hump by switching to amprenavir in an HIV‐infected patient. Arch Intern Med 2001;30:2003.
        • 507  Hengel I, Watts NB, Lennox JL. Benign symmetric lipomatosis associated with protease inhibitors. Lancet 1997;350:1596.Cross Ref link
        • 508  Blanes M, Boix V, Belinchón I, Portilla J. Angiolipomas, a rare manifestation of HIV‐associated lipodystrophy. AIDS 2008;22(4):5524.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 509  Darvay A, Acland K, Lynn W, Russell‐Jones R. Striae formation in two HIV‐positive persons receiving protease inhibitors. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;41:4679.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 510  Leung N, Hegele RA, Lewis GF. Rapid development of massive tendon xanthomas following highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:624.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 511  Brown CA, Lesher JL, Peterson CM. Tuberous and tendinous xanthomata secondary to ritonavir‐associated hyperlipidemia. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52(5 Suppl. 1):S869.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 512  Yachoui R, Traisak P, Jagga S. Scleredema in a patient with AIDS‐related lipodystrophy syndrome. Case Rep Endocrinol 2013;2013:article 943798.Pubmed link
        • 513  Padberg J, Schurmann D, Grobusch M, Bergmann F. Drug interaction of isotretinoin and protease inhibitors: support for the cellular retinoic acid‐binding protein‐1 theory of lipodystrophy? AIDS 1999;13:2845.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 514  Colebunders R, Bottieau E, de Mey I. Curly hair and lipodystrophy as a result of highly active antiretroviral treatment? Arch Dermatol 2000;136:10645.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 515  Sass JO, Jakob‐Solder B, Heitger A, et al. Paronychia with pyogenic granuloma in a child treated with indinavir: the retinoid‐mediated side effect theory revisited. Dermatology 2000;200:402.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 516  Garcia‐Silva J, Almagro M, Pena‐Penabad C, Fonseca E. Indinavir‐induced retinoid‐like effects: incidence, clinical features and management. Drug Saf 2002;25:9931003.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 517  Sass JO, Padberg J. Human isotretinoin metabolism during indinavir therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2000;16:14512.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 518  Jones DH, Carruthers A, Orentreich D, et al. Highly purified 1000‐cSt silicone oil for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus‐associated facial lipoatrophy: an open pilot trial. Dermatol Surg 2004;30:127986.Pubmed link
        • 519  Negredo E, Higueras C, Adell X, et al. Reconstructive treatment for antiretroviral‐associated facial lipoatrophy: a prospective study comparing autologous fat and synthetic substances. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2006;20:82937.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 520  Del Mar Guiterrrez M, Mateo G, Domingo P. Strategies in the treatment of HIV‐1‐associated adipose redistribution syndromes. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2007;8:187184.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 521  Hultman CS, McPhail LE, Donaldson JH, Wohl DA. Surgical management of HIV‐associated lipodystrophy: role of ultrasonic‐assisted liposuction and suction‐assisted lipectomy in the treatment of lipohypertrophy. Ann Plas Surg 2007;58:25563.Cross Ref link
        • 522  Cockerell CJ. Non‐infectious inflammatory skin diseases in HIV‐infected individuals. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:53142.Pubmed link
        • 523  Vidal C, Gonzalez Quintela A, Fuente R. Toxic epidermal necrolysis due to vancomycin. Ann Allergy 1992;68:3457.Pubmed link
        • 524  Girao L, Franca I, Robalo Nunes J, et al. Toxic epidermal necrolysis in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus‐2. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2002;16:913.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 525  Tebruegge M, Pantazidou A. Images in HIV/AIDS. Stevens‐Johnson syndrome associated with thalidomide treatment in HIV infection. AIDS Read 2008;18(10):51920.Pubmed link
        • 526  Zhang KS, Modi GM, Hsu S. DRESS syndrome associated with raltegravir. Dermatol Online J 2011;17(8):14.Pubmed link
        • 527  Loulergue P, Mir O. Raltegravir‐induced DRESS syndrome. Scand J Infec Dis 2012;44(10):8023.Cross Ref link
        • 528  Viswanath BK, Ranka P, Ramanjanayalu M. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions due to isoniazid in a HIV positive patient. Indian J Lepr 2012;84(3):22732.Pubmed link
        • 529  Mittmann N, Knowles SR, Koo M, Shear NH, Rachlis A, Rourke SB. Incidence of toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens‐Johnson syndrome in an HIV cohort: an observational, retrospective case series study. Am J Clin Dermatol 2012;13(1):4954.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 530  Litt JZ. Drug Eruption Reference Manual, 18th edn. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2012.
        • 531  Anon. British National Formulary. London: BMJ Publishing and RPS Publishing, 2014.
        • 532  Terheggen F, Frissen J, Weigel H, et al. Nail, hair and skin hyperpigmentation associated with indinavir therapy. AIDS 2004;18:1612.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 533  Sevila A, Morell A, Banuls J, et al. Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis in an HIV‐infected patient. Int J Dermatol 1996;35:6512.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 534  Bessen LJ, Greene JB, Louise E, et al. Severe polymyositis‐like syndrome associated with zidovudine therapy or AIDS and ARC. N Engl J Med 1988;311:708.
        • 535  Torres RA, Lin RV, Lee M, Barr MR. Zidovudine‐induced leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:850.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 536  Introcaso CE, Hines JM, Kovarik CL. Cutaneous toxicities of antiretroviral therapy for HIV. Part I. Lipodystrophy syndrome, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010;63:54961.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 537  Introcaso CE, Hines JM, Kovarik CL. Cutaneous toxicities of antiretroviral therapy for HIV. Part II. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, entry and fusion inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and immune reconstitution syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010;63:5639.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 538  Zhang JC, Sun YT. Efavirenz‐induced exfoliative dermatitis. Scand J Infect Dis 2013;45(1):702.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 539  Modak D, Guha SK. Severe skin rash with lamivudine in HIV infected patients: some unusual case reports. Indian J Pharmacol 2013;45(3):298300.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
        • 540  Isaacs T, Ngwanya MR, Dlamini S, Lehloenya RJ. Annular erythema and photosensitivity as manifestations of efavirenz‐induced cutaneous reactions: a review of five consecutive cases. J Antimicrob Chemother 2013;68:28714.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

        Infections

          Bacterial infections

          • 541  Manfredi R, Calza L, Chiodo F. Epidemiology and microbiology of cellulitis and bacterial soft tissue infection during HIV disease: a 10‐year survey. J Cutan Pathol 2002;29:16872.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 542  Skoutelis AT, Murphy RL, MacDonell KB, et al. Indwelling central venous catheter infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1990;3:33542.Pubmed link
          • 543  Redondo P, Molano E, Lloret P, Bauza A. ‘Skin popping’ ulceration in an HIV patient. Successful treatment with antiretroviral drugs and stanozolol. Int J STD AIDS 2002;13:5089.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 544  Colfax G, Shoptaw S. The methamphetamine epidemic: implications for HIV prevention and treatment. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2005;2:1949.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 545  Cambanis A, Tata E, Wirkom V. Proprionibacter acnes complicating HIV‐associated tuberculous pericardial effusion in Cameroon. Cardiovasc J S Afr 2006;17:2556.Pubmed link
          • 546  Falagas ME, Kastoris AC, Vouloumanou EK, Dimopoulos, G. Community‐acquired Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections: a systematic review. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009;28:71930.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 547  Bunker CB, Staughton RCD. HIV‐associated disease: dermatology. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:11539.
          • 548  Berger TG, Greene I. Bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections in HIV disease and AIDS. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:46592.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 549  Caumes E, Mommeja‐Marin H, Chosidow O, et al. Facial folliculitis due to Clostridium perfringens in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:5012.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 550  Smith KJ, Neafie R, Yeager J, Skelton HG. Micrococcus folliculitis in HIV‐1 disease. Br J Dermatol 1999;141:55861.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 551  Weinberg JM, Turiansky GW, James WD. Viral folliculitis. AIDS Patient Care STDS 1999;13:5136.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 552  Johnson RA. Dermatophyte infections in human immune deficiency virus (HIV) disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43(Suppl. 5):S13542.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 553  Bachmeyer C, Landgraf N, Cordier F, et al. Acinetobacter baumanii folliculitis in a patient with AIDS. Clin Exp Dermatol 2005;30:2568.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 554  Coker LR, Swain R, Morris R, McCall CO. Disseminated cryptococcosis presenting as pseudofolliculitis in an AIDS patient. Cutis 2000;66:20710.Pubmed link
          • 555  Holmes RB, Martins C, Horn T. The histopathology of folliculitis in HIV‐infected patients. J Cutan Pathol 2002;29:935.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 556  Maurer TA. Dermatologic manifestations of HIV infection. Top HIV Med 2005;13:14954.Pubmed link
          • 557  Klein PA, Greene WH, Fuhrer J, Clark RA. Prevalence of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus in outpatients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, or HIV infection. Arch Dermatol 1997;133:14635.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 558  Smith NP, Nelson MR, Azadian B, Gazzard BG. An outbreak of methicillin‐resistant Staphoylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in HIV‐seropositive persons. Int J STD AIDS 1998;9:72630.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 563  Skiest D, Brown K, Hester J, et al. Community‐onset methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an urban HIV clinic. HIV Med 2006;7:3618.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 564  Elston DM. Community‐acquired methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007;56:116.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 565  Shastry L, Rahimian J, Lascher S. Community‐associated methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections in men who have sex with men in New York City. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:8547.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 567  Imaz A, Pujol M, Barragán P, et al. Community associated methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus in HIV‐infected patients. AIDS Rev 2010;12(3):15363.Pubmed link
          • 568  Shadyab AH, Cru‐Cianflone NF. Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections among HIV‐infected persons in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a review of the literature. HIV Med 2012;13:31932.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 569  Vyas KJ, Shadyab AH, Lin C‐D, Crum‐Cianflone NF. Trends and factors associated with initial and recurrent methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft‐tissue infections among HIV‐infected persons: an 18‐year study. J Int Assoc Prov AIDS Care 2014;13:20613.Cross Ref link
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          • 572  Crum‐Cianflone NF. Recurrent neck infection in a person with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Read 2006;16:12932.Pubmed link
          • 573  Donovan B, Rohrsteim R, Bassett I, Mulhall BP. Bullous impetigo in homosexual men: a risk factor for HIV infection. Genitourin Med 1992;68:15961.Pubmed link
          • 574  Donohue D, Robinson B, Goldberg NS. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a woman with chronic renal failure exposed to human immunodeficiency virus. Cutis 1991;47:31718.Pubmed link
          • 575  Cone LA, Woodard DR, Byrd RG, et al. A recalcitrant, erythematous, desquamating disorder associated with toxin‐producing staphylococci in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis 1992;165:63843.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 576  Farrell AM, Ross JS, Umasankar S, Bunker CB. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in an HIV‐1 seropositive man. Br J Dermatol 1996;134:9625.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 577  De Vries HJ, van Noesel CJ, Hoekzema R, Hulsebosch HJ. Botryomycosis in an HIV‐positive patient. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003;17:8790.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 578  Kotler DP, Sandkovsky U, Schlievert PM, Sordillo EM. Toic shock‐like syndrome associated with staphylococcal enterocolitis in an HIV‐infected man. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:1213.Cross Ref link
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          • 580  Khan MO, Montecalvo MA, Davis I, Wormser GP. Ecthyma gangrenosum in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cutis 2000;66:1213.Pubmed link
          • 581  El Baze P, Thyss A, Vinti H, et al. A study of nineteen immunocompromised patients with extensive skin lesions caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with and without bacteremia. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1991;71:41115.
          • 582  Smith RA, Ross JS, Branfoot AC, et al. Panniculitis with Pseudomonas septicaemia in AIDS. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1995;4:1669.Cross Ref link
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          • 586  Lamas CC, Mares‐Guia MA, Rozental T, et al. Bartonella spp. infection in HIV positive individuals, their pets and ectoparasites in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: serological and molecular study. Acta Tropica 2010;115:13741.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 588  Musher DM, Hamill RJ, Baughn RE. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on the course of syphilis and on the response to treatment. Ann Intern Med 1990;113:87281.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 590  Kingston AA, Vujevich J, Shapiro M, et al. Seronegative secondary syphilis in 2 patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:4313.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 591  Ajithkumar K. Unusual skin ulceration in an HIV‐positive patient who had cutaneous syphilis and neurosyphilis. Br J Dermatol 1998;138:3667.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 594  Baniandrés Rodriguez O, Nieto Perea O, Moya Alonso L, Carillo Gijón R, Harto Castaño A. Nodular secondary syphilis in a HIV patient mimicking cutaneous lymphoma. An Med Interna 2004;21:2413.Pubmed link
          • 595  D'Amico R, Zalusky R. A case of lues maligna in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Scand J Infect Dis 2005;37:697700.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 600  Cordoliani F, Vignon‐Pennamen MD, Assous MV, et al. Atypical Lyme borreliosis in an HIV‐infected man. Br J Dermatol 1997;137:4379.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 601  Anonymous. Skin tuberculosis surges. AIDS Patient Care STDS 1998;12:739.Cross Ref link
          • 602  Dlova NC. Lupus vulgaris in an HIV‐positive patient. Skinmed 2010;8(5):296.Pubmed link
          • 603  Pedersen C, Nielsen JO. Tuberculosis in homosexual men with HIV disease. Scand J Infect Dis 1987;19:28990.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 604  Penneys MS. Skin Manifestations of AIDS. London: Martin Dunitz, 1990.Pubmed link
          • 605  Rohatgi PK, Palazzolo JV, Saini NB. Acute miliary tuberculosis of the skin in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26:3569.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 606  Daikos GL, Uttamchandani RB, Tuda C, et al. Disseminated miliary tuberculosis of the skin in patients with AIDS: report of four cases. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:2058.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 607  High WA, Evans CC, Hoang MP. Cutaneous military tuberculosis in two patients with HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 2004;50:S11013.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 608  Mehlmauer MA. Keratotic papules and nodules and hyperkeratosis of palms and soles in a patient with tuberculosis and AIDS‐related complex. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:3815.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 609  Gupta PJ. Pilonidal sinus disease and tuberculosis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012;16(1):1924.Pubmed link
          • 610  Farrell AM, Roberts NM, Walsh JC, Staughton RC. A painful rash with AIDS. Lancet 1996;347:372.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 611  Friedman PC, Husain S, Grossman ME. Nodular tuberculid in a patient with HIV. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;53:S1546.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 612  Aguado JM, Castrillo JM. Lymphadenitis as a characteristic manifestation of disseminated tuberculosis in intravenous drug abusers infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect 1987;14:1913.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 613  Colebunders R, Lambert ML. Management of co‐infection with HIV and TB. BMJ 2002;324:8023.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 614  Pozniak AL, Miller RF, Lipman MCI, et al. BHIVA treatment guidelines for tuberculosis (TB)/HIV infection 2005. HIV Med 2005;6:6283.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 615  Hawkins CC, Gold JWM, Whimby E, et al. Mycobacterium avium complex infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:1848.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 616  Freed JA, Pervez NK, Chen V, et al. Cutaneous mycobacteriosis: occurrence and significance in two patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1987;123:16013.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 617  Boyd AS, Robbins J. Cutaneous Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection in an HIV+ patient mimicking histoid leprosy. Am J Dermatopathol 2005;27:3941.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 618  Nunez M, Miralles ES, Hilara Y, et al. Concurrent cytomegalovirus, M. tuberculosis and M. avium‐intracellulare cutaneous infection in an HIV patient. J Dermatol 1997;24:4014.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 619  Brown T, Yen A. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from erythema multiforme. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;39:4935.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 620  Holton J, Nye P, Miller R. Mycobacterium haemophilum infection in a patient with AIDS. J Infect 1991;23:3036.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 621  Kristjansson M, Bieluch VM, Byeff PD. Mycobacterium haemophilum infection in immunocompromised patients: case report and review of the literature. Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:90610.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 622  Geisler WM, Harrington RD, Wallis CK, et al. Broad spectrum of dermatologic manifestations caused by Mycobacterium haemophilum infection. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:22930.Pubmed link
          • 623  Sack JB. Disseminated infection due to Mycobacterium fortuitum in a patient with AIDS. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12:9613.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 624  Montejo M, Goicoetxea J, Agnesta N, et al. Cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium lentiflavum in a patient with HIV. Dermatol 2006;213:1734.Cross Ref link
          • 625  Kaplan MH, Sadick N, McNutt NS, et al. Dermatologic findings and manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). J Am Acad Dermatol 1987;16:485506.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 626  Tchornobay AM, Claudy AL, Perrot JL, et al. Fatal disseminated Mycobacterium marinum infection. Int J Dermatol 1992;31:2867.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 627  Zukervar P, Canillot S, Gayrard L, Perrot H. Sporotrichoid Mycobacterium marinum infection in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Ann Dermatol Vénéréol 1991;118:11113.
          • 628  Kayal JD, McCall CO. Sporotrichoid cutaneous Mycobacterium avium complex infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:S24950.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 629  Toll A, Gallardo F, Ferran M, et al Aggressive multifocal Buruli ulcer with associated osteomyelitis in an HIV‐positive patient. Clin Exp Dermatol 2005;30:64951.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 630  Smith KJ, Skelton HG III, Angritt P. Histopathologic features of HIV‐associated skin disease. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:5518.Pubmed link
          • 631  Liou JH, Huang PY, Hung CC, Hsiao CH. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor of skin. J Formos Med Assoc 2003;102:3425.Pubmed link
          • 632  Meyers WM. Leprosy. Dermatol Clin 1992;10:7396.Pubmed link
          • 633  Awofeso N. AIDS and tuberculosis/leprosy in Nigeria: the urbanisation factor. Acta Leprol 1995;9:14951.Pubmed link
          • 634  Kar HK, Sharma P. Does concomitant HIV infection have any epidemiological, clinical, immunopathological and therapeutic relevance in leprosy? Indian J Lepr 2007;79:4560.Pubmed link
          • 635  Pignataro P, Rocha Ada S, Nery JA, et al. Leprosy and AIDS: two cases of increasing inflammatory reactions at the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2004;23:40811.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 636  Couppié P, Abel S, Voinchet H, et al. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with HIV and leprosy. Arch Dermatol 2004;140:9971000.Pubmed link
          • 637  Narang T, Dogra S, Kaur I. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy with type 1 reaction in an HIV patient – a phenomenon of immune reconstitution. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 2005;73:2035.Pubmed link
          • 638  Trindade MA, Valente NY, Manini MI, et al. Two patients coinfected with Mycobacterium leprae and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and naive for antiretroviral therapy who exhibited type 1 leprosy reactions mimicking the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:461618.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 639  Sanders CJ. Extragenital donovanosis in a patient with AIDS. Sex Transm Infect 1998;74:1423.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 640  Sardana K, Garg VK, Arora P, Khurana, N. Malignant transformation of donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) in a HIV‐positive patient. Dermatol Online J 2008;14:8.Pubmed link
          • 641  Santos‐Juanes J, Galache C, Martínez‐Cordero A, et al. Cutaneous granulomas caused by corynebacterium minutissimum in an HIV‐infected man. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2002;16:63849.
          • 642  Calista D. Rhodococcus equi subcutaneous abscess in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008;22:12930.Pubmed link
          • 643  Quale J, Teplitz E, Augenbraun M. Atypical presentation of chancroid in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Med 1990;88:434.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 644  Ghosh SK. A rare infection caused by Chryseomonas luteola. J Infect 2000;41:10910.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 645  Sanders S, Di Costanzo D, Leach J, et al. Rickettsialpox in a patient with HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:2869.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 646  Eiring P, Wagner D. Peptostreptococcus ivorii‐associated skin abscess in a HIV‐infected patient. Anaerobe 1999;5:13.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 647  Munoz‐Perez MA, Rodriguez‐Pichardo A, Camach F. Disseminated papular eruption caused by Serratia marcescens: a new cutaneous manifestation in HIV‐positive patients. AIDS 1996;10:117980.Pubmed link
          • 648  Rajendran PM, Hurst E, Ruben B, Maurer T. Campylobacter presenting as erythematous plaques on the lower extremity of a man with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 2006;142:12401.Pubmed link

          Viral infections

          • 649  Siegal FP, Lopez C, Hammer GS, et al. Severe acquired immunodeficiency in male homosexuals manifested by chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions. N Engl J Med 1981;25:5006.
          • 650  Berger TG, Greene I. Bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections in HIV disease and AIDS. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:46592.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
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          • 652  Baden LA, Bigby M, Kwan T. Persistent necrotic digits in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Herpes simplex virus infection. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:11316.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 653  Weinberg JM, Turiansky GW, James WD. Viral folliculitis. AIDS Patient Care STDS 1999;13:51316.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 654  Rodriguez‐Serna M, Mercader P, Pardo J, et al. Kaposi's varicelliform eruption in an HIV‐positive patient after laser resurfacing. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004;18:71112.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 655  Panasiti V, Devirgiliis V, Borroni RG, et al. Atypical cutaneous manifestation of HSV‐2 with Candida albicans co‐infection in a patient with HIV‐1. J Infect 2007;54:e557.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 656  Smith KJ, Skelton HG, III, Angritt P. Histopathologic features of HIV‐associated skin disease. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:5518.Pubmed link
          • 657  Lehloenya R, Meintjes G. Dermatologic manifestations of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Dermatol Clin 2006;24:54970, vii.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 658  Fox PA, Barton SE, Francis N, et al. Chronic erosive herpes simplex virus infection of the penis, a possible immune reconstitution disease. HIV Med 1999;1:1018.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 659  Di Lucca‐Christment J, Jacobelli S, Gressier L, et al. Anogenital pseudotumoral herpes and HIV infection: a new challenge for diagnosis and treatment. AIDS 2012;26:5236.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 660  Barde C, Piguet V, Pechere M, et al. Management of resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex infections in AIDS patients: a clinical and virological challenge. HIV Med 2011;12(6):36773.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 661  Penneys MS. Skin Manifestations of AIDS. London: Martin Dunitz, 1990.Pubmed link
          • 662  Smith KJ, Skelton HG, III, James WD, Angritt P. Concurrent epidermal involvement of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus in two HIV‐infected patients. Military Medical Consortium for Applied Retroviral Research (MMCARR). J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;25:5006.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 663  Schacker T. The role of HSV in the transmission and progression of HIV. Herpes 2001;8:469.Pubmed link
          • 664  Schacker T, Hu HL, Koelle DM, et al. Famciclovir for the suppression of symptomatic and asymptomatic herpes simplex virus reactivation in HIV‐infected persons. A double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:218.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 665  Vafai A, Berger M. Zoster in patients infected with HIV: a review. Am J Med Sci 2001;321:37280.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 666  Colebunders R, Mann JM, Francis H, et al. Herpes zoster in African patients: a clinical predictor of human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis 1988;157:31418.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 667  Jacobson MA. Editorial comment: another new immune reconstitution syndrome. Aids Read 2002;12:4567.
          • 668  Abraham S, Jones A, Toutous‐Trellu L, et al. Linear Darier disease with herpes zoster superinfection treated successfully by brivudine. Br J Dermatol 2006;154:3657.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 669  Cohen PR, Grossman ME. Clinical features of human immunodeficiency virus‐associated disseminated herpes zoster infection: a review of the literature. Clin Exp Dermatol 1989;14:2736.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 670  Rodgers S, Leslie KS. Skin infections in HIV‐infected individuals in the era of HAART. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2011;24:1249.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 671  Lee JY. Cytomegalovirus infection involving the skin in immunocompromised hosts. A clinicopathologic study. Am J Clin Pathol 1989;92:96100.Pubmed link
          • 672  Chiewchanvit S, Thamprasert K, Siriunkgul S. Disseminated cutaneous cytomegalic inclusion disease resembling prurigo nodularis in a HIV‐infected patient: a case report and literature review. J Med Assoc Thai 1993;76:5814.Pubmed link
          • 673  Ramdial PK, Dlova NC, Sydney C. Cytomegalovirus neuritis in perineal ulcers. J Cutan Pathol 2002;29:43944.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 674  Nunez M, Miralles ES, Hilara Y, et al. Concurrent cytomegalovirus, M. tuberculosis and M. avium‐intracellulare cutaneous infection in an HIV patient. J Dermatol 1997;24:4014.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 675  Samant JS, Namgoong SH, Parveen T, Katner HP. Cytomegalovirus vasculitis and mucormycosis coinfection in late‐stage HIV/AIDS. Am J Med Sci 2007;333:1224.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 676  Daudén E, Fernández‐Buezo G, Fraga J, et al. Mucocutaneous presence of cytomegalovirus associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Arch Dermatol 2001;137:4438.Pubmed link
          • 677  Chetty R, Bramdev A, Govender D. Cytomegalovirus induced syringosquamous metaplasia. Am J Dermatopathol 1999;21:487900.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 678  Daudén E, Martin R, Feal C, et al. Eccrine ductal mucinosis in a human immunodeficiency virus‐positive patient with probable scabies. Br J Dermatol 2000;143:13356.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 679  Toome BK, Bowers KE, Scott GA. Diagnosis of cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection: a review and report of a case. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;24:85763.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 680  Qazi NA, Morlese JF, Walsh JC, et al. Severe cutaneous ulceration secondary to cytomegalovirus inclusion disease during successful immune reconstitution with HAART. Aids Read 2002;12:4527.Pubmed link
          • 681  Moyle G, Gazzard BG. Opportunistic infections and tumours. Cytomegalovirus infection. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:7180.
          • 682  Barbosa P. Plantar verrucae and HIV infection. Clin Podiatr Med Surg 1998;15:31727.Pubmed link
          • 683  Anonymous. Clinicians should check women with HPV for HIV. Aids Alert 1999;14:3941.Pubmed link
          • 684  Kreuter A, Weiland U, Brockmeyer NH; for the German Network of Competence HIV/AIDS. Genital human papillomavirus‐associated (pre‐) malignant skin diseases drastically increase in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55:111617.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 685  Silverberg MJ, Ahdieh L, Munoz A, et al. The impact of HIV infection and immunodeficiency on human papillomavirus type 6 or 11 infection and on genital warts. Sex Transm Dis 2002;29:42735.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 686  Reynaud‐Mendel B, Janier M, Gerbaka J, et al. Dermatologic findings in HIV‐1‐infected patients: a prospective study with emphasis on CD4+ cell count. Dermatol 1996;192:3258.Cross Ref link
          • 687  Arany I, Evans T, Tyring SK. Tissue specific HPV expression and down‐regulation of local immune responses in condylomas from HIV seropositive individuals. Sex Transm Infect 1998;74:34953.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 688  Arany I, Tyring SK. Systemic immunosuppression by HIV infection influences HPV transcription and thus local immune responses in condyloma acuminatum. Int J STD AIDS 1998;9:26871.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 689  Bradshaw BR, Nuovo GJ, DiCostanzo D, Cohen SR. Human papillomavirus type 16 in a homosexual man. Association with perianal carcinoma in situ and condyloma acuminatum. Arch Dermatol 1992;128:94952.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 690  Bryan JT, Stoler MH, Tyring SK, et al. High‐grade dysplasia in genital warts from two patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Med Virol 1998;54:6973.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 691  Morgan AR, Miles AJ, Wastell C. Anal warts and squamous carcinoma‐in‐situ of the anal canal. J R Soc Med 1994;87:15.Pubmed link
          • 692  Falter Ii KJ, Frimer M, Lavy D, Samuelson R, Shahabi S. Human papillomavirusassociated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses. Rare Tumors 2013;5(2):934.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 693  Schmitz MW, Goldberg LJ, Adler, AJ. Case report. An extensive case of Bowen's disease in an HIV‐positive male. Aids Patient Care STDS 2007;21(2):7880.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 694  Berger TG, Sawchuk WS, Leonardi C, et al. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis‐associated papillomavirus infection complicating human immunodeficiency virus disease. Br J Dermatol 1991;124:7983.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 695  Barzegar C, Paul C, Saiag P, et al. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis‐like eruption complicating human immunodeficiency virus infection. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:1227.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 696  Davison SC, Francis N, Maclean K, Bunker CB. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis in HIV infection. Clin Exp Dermatol 2004;29:3112.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 697  Haas N, Fuchs PG, Hermes B, Henz BM. Remission of epidermodysplasia verruciformis‐like skin eruption after highly active antiretroviral therapy in a human immunodeficiency virus‐positive patient. Br J Dermatol 2001;145:66970.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 698  Trauner MA, Ruben BS, Hatcher SL, Lawry MA Groin eruption in an HIV‐positive man. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:52732.Pubmed link
          • 699  Jacobelli S, Laude H, Carlotti A, et al. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis in human immunodeficiency virus‐infected patients: a marker of human papillomavirus‐related disorders not affected by antiretroviral therapy. Arch Dermatol 2011;147:5906.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 700  Lowe SM, Katsidzira L, Meys R, et al. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis due to multiple and unusual HPV infection among vertically‐infected, HIV‐positive adolescents in Zimbabwe. Clin Infect Dis 2012;54 e11923.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 701  Juschka U, Hartmann M. Topical treatment of common warts in an HIV‐positive patient with imiquimod 5% cream. Clin Exp Dermatol 2003;28(Suppl. 1):4850.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 702  Schurmann D, Bergmann F, Temmesfeld‐Wollbruck B, et al. Topical cidofovir is effective in treating extensive penile condylomata acuminata. AIDS 2000;14:10756.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 703  Calista D. Topical cidofovir for severe cutaneous human papillomavirus and molluscum contagiosum infections in patients with HIV/AIDS. A pilot study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2000;14:4848.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 704  Kottke MD, Parker SRS. Intravenous cidofovir‐induced resolution of disfiguring cutaneous human papillomavirus infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55:5336.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 705  Costner M, Cockerell CJ. The changing spectrum of the cutaneous manifestations of HIV disease. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1290.Pubmed link
          • 706  Spach DH, Colven R. Resolution of recalcitrant hand warts in an HIV‐infected patient treated with potent antiretroviral therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;40:81821.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 707  Rodrigues LK, Baker T, Maurer T. Cutaneous warts in HIV‐positive patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Arch Dermatol 2001;137:11034.Pubmed link
          • 708  Turnbull JR, Husak R, Treudler R, et al. Regression of multiple viral warts in a human immunodeficiency virus‐infected patient treated by triple antiretroviral therapy. Br J Dermatol 2002;146:330.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 709  Queiroz Zancanaro PC, McGirt LY, Mamelak AJ, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: an institutional urban clinic experience. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;54:5818.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 710  Denny LA, Franceschi S, de Sanjose S, Heard I, Moscicki AB, Palefsky J. Human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus and immunosuppression. Vaccine 2012;30(Suppl. 5):F16874.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 711  Petersen CS, Gerstoft J. Molluscum contagiosum in HIV‐infected patients. Dermatol 1992;184:1921.Cross Ref link
          • 712  Nelson JA, Ghazal P, Wiley CA. Role of opportunistic viralinfections in AIDS. AIDS 1990;4:1.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 713  Scholz J, Rosen‐Wolff A, Bugert J, et al. Molecular epidemiologyof molluscum contagiosum. J Infect Dis 1988;158:898.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 714  Mastrolorenzo A, Urbano FG, Salimbeni L, et al. Atypical molluscum contagiosum infection in an HIV‐infected patient. Int J Dermatol 1998;37:37880.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 715  Bates CM, Carey PB, Dhar J, Hart CA. Molluscum contagiosum: a novel presentation. Int J STD AIDS 2001;12:61415.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 716  Moret M, Schouten WEM, Hoekzema R, van den Berk GEL. Skin lesions in a HIV‐positive female. Cellulitis of the groin region secondary to the skin lesions. Neth J Med 2011;69(10):45275.Pubmed link
          • 717  Aldabagh B, Ly MN, Hessel AB, Usmani AS. Molluscum contagiosum involving an epidermoid cyst with xanthogranuloma‐like reaction in an HIV‐infected patient. J Cutan Pathol 2010;37(2):2826.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 718  Meadows KP, Tyring SK, Pavia AT, Rallis TM. Resolution of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus lesions in human immunodeficiency virus‐infected‐patients treated with cidofovir. Arch Dermatol 1997;133:98790.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 719  Toutous‐Trellu L, Hirschel B, Piguet V, Schiffer V, Saurat JH, Pechere M. [Treatment of cutaneous human papilloma virus, poxvirus and herpes simplex virus infections with topical cidofovir in HIV positive patients.] Ann Dermatol Vénéréol 2004;131(5):4459.
          • 720  Scolaro MJ, Gordon P. Electron‐beam therapy for AIDS‐related molluscum contagiosum lesions: preliminary experience. Radiology 1999;210:47982.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 721  Chularojanamontri L, Tuchinda P, Kulthanan K, Manuskiatti W. Generalized molluscum contagiosum in an HIV patient treated with diphencyprone. J Dermatol Case Rep 2010;4:602.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 722  Martinelli C, Azzi A, Buffini G, et al. Cutaneous vasculitis due to human parvovirus B19 in an HIV‐infected patient: report of a case. AIDS 1997;11:18913.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 723  Ghigliotti G, Mazzarello G, Nigro A, et al. Papular–purpuric gloves and socks syndrome in HIV‐positive patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:91617.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Fungal infections

          • 724  Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidosis in previously healthy homosexual men. N Eng J Med 1981;305:142530.Cross Ref link
          • 725  Reynaud‐Mendel B, Janier M, Gerbaka J, et al. Dermatologic findings in HIV‐1‐infected patients: a prospective study with emphasis on CD4 cell count. Dermatology 1996;192:3258.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 726  Hamza OJM, Matee MIN, Brüggemann RJM, et al. Single‐dose fluconazole versus standard 2‐week therapy for oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV‐infected patients: a randomized, double‐blind, double‐dummy trial. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47(10):12706.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 727  Pienaar ED, Young T, Holmes H. Interventions for the prevention and management of oropharyngeal candidiasis associated with HIV infection in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;Issue 11:CD003940.Pubmed link
          • 728  Collins CD, Cookinham S, Smith J. Management of oropharyngeal candidiasis with localized oral miconazole therapy: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability. Patient Pref Adher 2011;5:36974.Cross Ref link
          • 729  Berger TG, Greene I. Bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections in HIV disease and AIDS. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:46592.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 730  Josephine M, Issac E, George A, et al. Patterns of skin manifestations and their relationship with CD4 counts among HIV/AIDS patients in Cameroon. Int J Dermatol 2006;45:2804.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 731  Kaplan MH, Sadick N, McNutt NS, et al. Dermatologic findings and manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). J Am Acad Dermatol 1987;16:485506.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 732  Tosti A, Piraccini BM, Lorenzi S, D'Antuono A. Candida onchomycosis in an HIV infection. Eur J Dermatol 1998;8:1734.Pubmed link
          • 733  Kreuter A, Teichmann M, Stuecker M, et al. Generalised fungal infection in a patient with AIDS appearing as skin papules. Eur J Med Res 2003;8:4357.Pubmed link
          • 734  Muñoz P, Sánchez‐Somolinos M, Alcalá L, et al. Candida krusei fungaemia: antifungals susceptibility and clinical presentation of an uncommon entity during 15 years in a single general hospital. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005;55:18893.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 735  Anwar KP, Malik A, Subhan KH. Profile of candidiasis in HIV infected patients. Iranian J Microbiol 2012;4(4):2049.
          • 736  Koranda FC, Dehmel EM, Kahn G, Penn I. Cutaneous complications in immunosuppressed renal homograft recipients. JAMA 1974;229:41924.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 737  Johnson RA. HIV disease: mucocutaneous fungal infections in HIV disease. Clin Dermatol 2000;18:41122.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 738  Torssander J, Karlsson A, Morfeldt‐Manson L, et al. Dermatophytosis and HIV infection: a study in homosexual men. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1988;68:536.
          • 739  Munoz‐Perez MA, Rodriguez‐Pichardo A, Camacho F, Rios JJ. Extensive and deep dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitalis in an HIV‐1 positive patient. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2000;14:613.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 740  Kwon KS, Jang HS, Son HS, et al. Widespread and invasive Trichophyton rubrum infection mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS. J Dermatol 2004;31:83943.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 741  Luque AG, Biasoli MS, Sortino MA, et al. Atypical tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gypseum in a subject with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2001;15:3745.Pubmed link
          • 742  Galhardo MC, Wanke B, Reis RS, et al. Disseminated dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum gypseum in an AIDS patient: response to terbinafine and amorolfine. Mycoses 2004;47:23841.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 743  Dompmartin D, Dompmartin A, Deluol AM, et al. Onychomycosis and AIDS: clinical and laboratory findings in 62 patients. Int J Dermatol 1990;29:3379.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 744  Tachikawa N, Yasuoka A, Oka S. Improvement of onychomycosis without antifungal therapy after initiation of highly active anti‐retroviral therapy (HAART) in an HIV‐infected patient. Jpn J Infect Dis 1999;52:2456.Pubmed link
          • 745  Duvic M, Lowe L. Superficial phaeohypomycosis of the scrotum in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1987;123:15979.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 746  Brasch J, Gräser Y. Trichophyton eboreum sp. nov. isolated from human skin. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:52307.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 747  Rich P, Houpt KR, LaMarca A, et al. Safety and efficacy of short‐duration oral terbinafine for the treatment of tinea corporis or tinea cruris in subjects with HIV infection or diabetes. Cutis 2001;68:1522.Pubmed link
          • 748  Ricchi E, Manfredi R, Scarani P, et al. Cutaneous cryptococcosis and AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;25:3356.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 749  Blauvelt A, Kerdel FA. Cutaneous cryptococcosis mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma as the initial manifestation of disseminated disease. Int J Dermatol 1992;31:27980.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 750  Coker LR, Swain R, Morris R, McCall CO. Disseminated cryptococcosis presenting as pseudofolliculitis in an AIDS patient. Cutis 2000;66:20710.Pubmed link
          • 751  Chaya R, Padmanabhan S, Anandaswamy V, Moin A. Disseminated cryptococcosis presenting as cellulitis in a renal transplant recipient. J Infect Dev Countries 2013;7(1):603.
          • 752  Persad P, Patel R, Stephens J, Francis‐Rogers S, Talat P. Explosive nasofacial cryptococosis. Dermatol Online J 2010;16:5.Pubmed link
          • 753  Jimenez‐Acosta FJ, Vicandim B, Viguer JM, et al. Diagnostic value of cutaneous cytology in opportunistic fungal infections of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:3834.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 754  Penneys NS. Skin Manifestations of AIDS. London: Martin Dunitz, 1990.Pubmed link
          • 755  Lindgren AM, Fallon JD, Horan RF. Psoriasiform papules in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:7223.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 756  Cole MC, Cohen PR, Satra KH, Grossman ME. The concurrent presence of systemic disease pathogens and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lesion. Histoplasma capsulatum and Kaposi's sarcoma coexisting in a single skin lesion in a patient with AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26:2857.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 757  Casariego Z, Kelly GR, Perez H, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis with orofacial involvement in HIV‐1‐infected patients with AIDS: manifestation and treatment. Oral Dis 1997;3:1847.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 758  Ramdial P, Mosam A, Dlova NC, et al. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Cutan Pathol 2002;29:21525.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 759  Antinori S, Magni C, Nebuloni M, et al. Histoplasmosis among human immunodeficiency virus‐infected people in Europe: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 2006;85:2236.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 760  Casotti JA, Motta TQ, Ferreira CU, Jr, Cerutti C, Jr. Disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV positive patients in Espirito Santo state, Brazil: a clinical‐laboratory study of 12 cases (1999–2001). Braz J Infect Dis 2006;10:32730.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 761  Cunha VS, Zampese MS, Aquino VR, et al. Mucocutaneous manifestations of disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: particular aspects in a Latin‐American population. Clin Exp Dermatol 2007;32:25.Cross Ref link
          • 762  Bonifaz A, Chang P, Moreno K, et al. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of 23 cases. Clin Exp Dermatol 2009;34(4):4816.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 763  Mehta V, De A, Balachandran C, Monga, P. Mucocutaneous histoplasmosis in HIV with an atypical ecthyma like presentation. Dermatol Online J 2009;15(4):10.Pubmed link
          • 764  Ollague Sierra JE, Ollague Torres JM. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus‐positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Dermatopathol 2013;35(2):20512.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 765  Lesher JL, Knight FJ. Tzanck preparation as a diagnostic aid in disseminated histoplasmosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1986;15:5345.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 766  Tobón AM, Agudela CA, Rosero DS, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis: a comparative study between patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and non‐human immunodeficiency virus‐infected individuals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2005;73:57682.Pubmed link
          • 767  Ramos‐e‐Silva M, Lima CMO, Schechtman RC, Trope BM, Carneiro S. Superficial mycoses in immunodepressed patients (AIDS). Clin Dermatol 2010;28(2):21725.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 768  Ramos‐e‐Silva M, Lima CMO, Schechtman RC, Trope BM, Carneiro S. Systemic mycoses in immunodepressed patients (AIDS). Clin Dermatol 2012;30(6):61627.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 769  Chiewchanvit S, Mahanupab P, Hirunsri P, Vanittanakow N. Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated Penicillium marneffei mycosis in five HIV‐infected patients. Mycoses 1991;34:2459.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 770  Kullavanijaya P. Penicilliosis in AIDS. J Dermatol 2001;28:66770.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 771  Huynh TX, Nguyen HC, Dinh Nguyen HM, et al. Penicillium marneffei infection and AIDS. A review of 12 cases reported in the Tropical Diseases Centre, Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Sante 2003;13:14953.Pubmed link
          • 772  Maniar JK, Chitale AR, Miskeen A, et al. Penicillium marneffei infection: an AIDS‐defining illness. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Lepr 2005;71:2024.Cross Ref link
          • 773  Lupi O, Tyring SK, McGinnis MR. Tropical dermatology: fungal tropical diseases. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;53:93151.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 774  Carvalho MT, de Castro AP, Baby C, et al. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in a patient with AIDS: report of a case. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2002;35:6559.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 775  Bakos L, Kronfeld M, Hampe S, et al. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis with skin lesions in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;20:8545.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 776  Paniago AM, de Freitas AC, Aguiar ES, et al. Paracoccidioidomycosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: review of 12 cases observed in an endemic region in Brazil. J Infect 2005;51:24852.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 777  Marques SA, Camargo RMP, Abbade LPF, Fortaleza CMCB, Marques MEA. Paracoccidioidomycosis: an unusual presentation in a young girl disclosing an unnoted HIV‐infection. Med Mycol 2010;48(1):1827.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 778  Morejón KML, Machado AA, Martinez R. Paracoccidioidomycosis in patients infected with and not infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a case‐control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2009;80(3):35966.Pubmed link
          • 779  Battle SE, Skillman DR, Maguire JH, Bennett KS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome‐related blastomycosis in an unusual geographic location. Milit Med 2001;166:10268.
          • 780  Boixeda P, Espana A, Suarez J, et al. Cutaneous nocardiosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Int J Dermatol 1991;11:8045.Cross Ref link
          • 781  Lee CC, Loo LW, Lam MS. Case reports of nocardiosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2000;29:11926.Pubmed link
          • 782  Pintado V, Gómez‐Mampaso E, Cobo J, et al. Nocardial infections in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Microbiol Infect 2003;9:71620.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 783  Diego C, Ambrosioni JC, Abel G, et al. Disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia abscessus in an HIV‐infected patient: first reported case. AIDS 2005;19:13301.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 784  Padmavathy L, Rao IL, Selvam SS, Sahoo CG. Disseminated cutaneous rhinosporidiosis in a HIV sero‐positive patient. Indian J Dernatol Vererol Lepr 2001;67:3323.
          • 785  Hunt SJ, Nagi C, Gross KG, et al. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis near central venous catheters in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1992;128:122932.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 786  Arikan S, Uzun O, Cetinkaya Y, et al. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis in human immunodeficiency virus‐infected patients: two cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:6413.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 787  Gedela K, Nelson M, Francis N, Mohabeer M, Jones R. Cutaneous aspergillosis associated with HIV infection. Int J STD AIDS 2012;23(9):67980.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 788  Pérez‐Uribe A, Molina de Soschin D, Arenas R, Reyes M. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis. Report of a case in a HIV patient. Rev Iberoam Micol 2005;22:11821.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 789  Samant JS, Namgoong SH, Parveen T, Katner HP. Cytomegalovirus vasculitis and mucormycosis coinfection in late‐stage HIV/AIDS. Am J Med Sci 2007;333:1224.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 790  Martin CA, Roberts S, Greenberg RN. Voriconazole treatment of disseminated paecilomyces infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:e7881.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 791  Piyophirapong S, Linpiyawan R, Mahaisavariya P, et al. Cutaneous protothecosis in an AIDS patient. Br J Dermatol 2002;146:71315.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 792  Pascual JS, Balos LL, Baer AN. Disseminated Prototheca wickerhamii infection with arthritis and tenosynovitis. J Rheumatol 2004;31:18615.Pubmed link
          • 793  Osei‐Sekyere B, Karstaedt AS. Immune constitution inflammatory syndrome involving the skin. Clin Exp Dermatol 2009;35:47781.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Protozoal infections

          • 794  Hennessey NP, Parro EL, Cockerell CJ. Cutaneous Pneumocystis carinii infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:1699701.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 795  Berger TG, Greene I. Bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections in HIV disease and AIDS. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:46592.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 796  Litwin MA, Williams CM. Cutaneous Pneumocystis carinii infection mimicking Kaposi sarcoma. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:459.
          • 797  Eeftinck Schattenkerk JK, van Gool T, van Ketel RJ, Bartelsman JF. Microsporidiosis in HIV‐1 infected individuals. Lancet 1991;338:323.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 798  Kester KE, Turiansky GW, McEvoy PL. Nodular cutaneous microsporidiosis in a patient with AIDS and successful treatment with long‐term oral clindamycin. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:91114.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 799  Smith KJ, Skelton HG, III, Angritt P. Histopathologic features of HIV‐associated skin disease. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:5518.Pubmed link
          • 800  May LP, Sidhu GS, Buchness MR. Diagnosis of Acanthamoeba infection by cutaneous manifestations in a man seropositive to HIV. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26:3525.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 801  Torno MS, Jr, Babapour R, Gurevitch A, et al. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;42:3514.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 802  Paltiel M, Powewll E, Lynch J, et al. Disseminated cutaneous acanthemebiasis: a case report and review of the literature. Cutis 2004;73:2418.Pubmed link
          • 803  Gbery IP, Dheja D, Kacou DE, et al. Chronic genital ulcerations and HIV infection: 29 cases. Med Trop 1999;59:27982.
          • 804  Bumb RA, Mehta RD. Amoebiasis cutis in HIV positive patient. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Lepr 2006;72:2246.Cross Ref link
          • 805  Pialoux G, Hannequin C, Dupon B, Ravisse P. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in an AIDS patient: cure with itraconazole. J Infect Dis 1990;162:12212.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 806  Alvar J, Canacate C, Gutierrez‐Solar B, et al. Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: the first 10 years. Clin Microbiol Rev 1997;10:298319.Pubmed link
          • 807  Sabbatani S, Isuierdo Calzado A, Ferro A, et al. Atypical leishmaniasis in an HIV‐2‐seropositive patient from Guinea‐Bissau. AIDS 1991;5:899901.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 808  Romeu J, Milla F, Batlle M, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis involving lung and a cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma lesion. AIDS 1991;5:1272.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 809  Rios‐Buceta L, Buezo GF, Peñas PF, et al. Post‐kala‐azar dermal leishmaniasis in an HIV‐patient. Int J Dermatol 1996;35:3034.Cross Ref link
          • 810  Gonzalez‐Beato MJ, Moyano B, Sanchez C, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma‐like lesions and other nodules as cutaneous involvement in AIDS‐related visceral leishmaniasis. Br J Dermatol 2000;143:131618.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 811  Castellano VM, Rodriguez‐Peralto JL, Alonso S, et al. Dermatofibroma parasitized by Leishmania in HIV infection: a new morphologic expression of dermal kala azar in an immunodepressed patient. J Cutan Pathol 1999;26:51619.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 812  Colebunders R, Depraetere K, Verstraeten T, et al. Unusual cutaneous lesions in two patients with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;41:84750.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 813  Puig L, Pradinaud R. Leishmania and HIV co‐infection: dermatological manifestations. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2003;97(Suppl. 1):10714.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 814  Couppié P, Clyti E, Sobesky M, et al. Comparative study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‐infected patients and non‐HIV‐infected patients in French Guiana. Br J Dermatol 2004;151:116571.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 815  Boumis E, Chinello P, Della Rocca C, et al. Atypical disseminated leishmaniasis in an HIV‐infected patient. Int J STD AIDS 2006;17:3513.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 816  Bosch RJ, Rodrigo AB, Sánchez P, et al. Presence of Leishmania organisms in specific and non‐specific skin lesions in HIV‐infected individuals with visceral leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol 2002;41:6705.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 817  Pérez C, Solías Y, Rodríguez G. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with AIDS [in Spanish]. Biomedica 2006;26:48597.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 818  Catorze G, Alberto J, Afonso A, et al. Leishmania infantum/HIV co‐infection: cutaneous lesions following treatment of visceral leishmaniasis [in French]. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2006;133:3942.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 819  García‐Río I, Daudén E, Ballestero‐Díez M, et al. [Leishmaniasis and rheumatoid nodulosis in a patient with HIV infection.] Actas Dermo‐sifiliográficas 2010;101:1647.Cross Ref link
          • 820  Sartori AM, Sotto MN, Braz LM, et al. Reactivation of Chagas disease manifested by skin lesions in a patient with AIDS. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1999;93:6312.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Scabies

          • 821  Orkin M. Scabies in AIDS. Semin Dermatol 1993;12:914.Pubmed link
          • 822  Funkhouser ME, Omohundro C, Ross A, Berger TG. Management of scabies in patients with human immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Dermatol 1993;129:91113.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 823  Farrell A, Ross JS, Barton SE, Bunker CB. Multiple pilomatricomas and myotonic dystrophy in a patient with AIDS. Clin Exp Dermatol 1995;20:4234.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 824  Brites C, Wey M, Pedroso C, Badaró R. Severe and Norwegian scabies are strongly associated with retroviral (HIV‐1/HTLV‐1) infection in Bahia, Brazil. AIDS 2002;16:12923.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 825  Bitman LM, Rabinowitz AD. Hyperkeratotic plantar plaques in an HIV‐positive patient. Crusted scabies, localized to the soles. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1019, 10223.
          • 826  Perna AG, Bell K, Rosen T. Localised genital Norwegian scabies in an AIDS patient. Sex Transm Infect 2004;80:723.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 827  Daudén E, Porras JI, Buezo GF, García‐Díez A. Eccrine squamous syringometaplasia and cytomegalovirus. Am J Dermatopathol 2000;22:55961.Cross Ref link
          • 828  Taplin D, Meinking TL. Treatment of HIV‐related scabies with emphasis on the efficacy of ivermectin. Semin Cutan Med Surg 1997;16:23540.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 829  Alberici F, Pagani L, Ratti G, Viale P. Ivermectin alone or in combination with benzyl benzoate in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus‐associated scabies. Br J Dermatol 2000;142:96972.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

          Miscellaneous infections

          • 830  Dominey A, Rosen T, Fschen J. Papulonodular demodicidosis associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1989;20:197201.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 831  Clyti E, Macher M, Sainte‐Marie D, et al. Ivermectin treatment of three cases of demodecidosis during human immunodeficiency virus infection. Int J Dermatol 2006;45:10668.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 832  Jansen T, Kastner U, Kreuter A, Altmeyer P. Rosacea‐like demodicidosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Br J Dermatol 2001;144:13942.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 833  Sarro R, Hong J, Elgart M. An unusual demodicidosis manifestation in a patient with AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:1201.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 834  Edwards SK, Carne CA. Larva migrans as a cause of fever in an HIV‐positive man. Int J STD AIDS 1998;9:545.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 835  Kipp W, Bamuhiiga J, Rubaale T. Simulium neavei‐transmitted onchocerciasis: HIV infection increases severity of onchocercal skin disease in a small sample of patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2003;97:31011.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 836  Barnard M, Chalvardjian A. Cutaneous malakoplakia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Am J Dermatopathol 1998;20:1858.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 837  Savant SR, Amladi ST, Kangle SD, et al. Cutaneous malakoplakia in an HIV‐positive patient. Int J STD AIDS 2007;18:4356.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
          • 838  Martin SJ, Cohen PR, MacFarlane DF, Grossman ME. Cutaneous manifestations of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in an HIV‐seropositive patient. Skinmed 2011;9:199202.Pubmed link

          Neoplasms

            Kaposi sarcoma

            • 839  Fine RM. AIDS‐related Kaposi's sarcoma. Int J Dermatol 1992;31:471.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 840  Dal Maso L, Serraino D, Franceschi S. Epidemiology of HIV‐associated malignancies. Cancer Treatment Res 2001;104:118.Cross Ref link
            • 841  Daly M‐L, Fogo A, McDonald C, Morris‐Jones R. Kaposi sarcoma: no longer an AIDS‐defining illness? A retrospective study of Kaposi sarcoma cases with CD4 counts above 300/mm3 at presentation. Clin Exp Dermatol 2014;39:712.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 842  Archer CB, Spittle MF, Smith NP. Kaposi's sarcoma in a homosexual: 10 years on. Clin Exp Dermatol 1989;14:2336.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 843  Antman K, Chang Y. Medical progress: Kaposi's sarcoma. N Engl J Med 2000;342:102738.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 844  Kreuter A, Schugt I, Hartmann M, et al. Dermatological diseases and signs of HIV infection. Eur J Med Res 2002;7:5762.Pubmed link
            • 845  Martró E, Esteve A, Schultz TF, et al. Risk factors for human herpesvirus 8 infection and AIDS‐associated Kaposi's sarcoma among men who have sex with men in a European multicentre study. Int J Cancer 2007;120:112935.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 846  Pica F, Volpi A. Transmission of human herpesvirus 8: an update. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2007;20:1526.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 847  Greene W, Kuhne K, Ye F, et al. Molecular biology of KSHV in relation to AIDS‐associated oncogenesis. Cancer Treat Res 2007;133:69127.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 848  Cattani P, Capuano M, Cerimele F, et al. Human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence and evaluation of nonsexual transmission routes by detection of DNA in clinical specimens from human immunodeficiency virus‐seronegative patients from central and southern Italy, with and without Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:11503.Pubmed link
            • 849  Vitale F, Viviano E, Perna AM, et al. Serological and virological evidence of non‐sexual transmission of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8). Epidemiol Infect 2000;125:6715.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 850  Pyakurel P, Pak F, Mwakigonja AR, et al. KSHV/HHV‐8 and HIV infection in Kaposi's sarcoma development. Infect Agent Cancer 2007;2:4.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 851  Schmutz J‐L, Barbaud A, Trechot P. Maladie de Kaposi chez un sujet sidéen après application de tacrolimus (Protopic). Ann Dermatol Venereol 2006;133:303.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 852  Hengge UR, Stocks K, Goos M. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome‐related hyperkeratotic Kaposi's sarcoma with severe lymphoedema: report of five cases. Br J Dermatol 2000;142:5015.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 853  Ramdial PK, Chetty R, Singh B, et al. Lymphedematous HIV‐associated Kaposi's sarcoma. J Cutan Pathol 2006;33:47481.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 854  Morris‐Jones R, Fearfield L, Nelson M, et al. Acute stridor and phimosis secondary to Kaposi's sarcoma. Retinoids 2000;16:412.
            • 855  Waiters RW, Soler AP, Selim MA. Kaposi sarcoma presenting as yellow‐green penile plaques in a black man with HIV. Cutis 2011;88:1416.Pubmed link
            • 856  Bunker CB, Staughton RCD. HIV‐associated disease: dermatology. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:11539.
            • 857  Davis DA, Scott DM. Lymphangioma‐like Kaposi's sarcoma: etiology and literature review. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:1237.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 858  Ricchi E, Manfredi R, Scarani P, et al. Cutaneous cryptococcosis and AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;25:3356.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 859  Blauvelt A, Kerdel FA. Cutaneous cryptococcosis mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma as the initial manifestation of disseminated disease. Int J Dermatol 1992;31:27980.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 860  Cole MC, Cohen PR, Satra KH, Grossman ME. The concurrent presence of systemic disease pathogens and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in the same lesion. Histoplasma capsulatum and Kaposi's sarcoma coexisting in a single skin lesion in a patient with AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26:2857.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 861  Romeu J, Milla F, Batlle M, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis involving lung and a cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma lesion. AIDS 1991;5:1272.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 862  Gonzalez‐Beato MJ, Moyano B, Sanchez C, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma‐like lesions and other nodules as cutaneous involvement in AIDS‐related visceral leishmaniasis. Br J Dermatol 2000;143:131618.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 863  Litwin MA, Williams CM. Cutaneous Pneumocystis carinii infection mimicking Kaposi sarcoma. Ann Intern Med 1992;117:459.
            • 864  Crosby DL, Berger TG, Woosley JT, Resnick SD. Dermatophytosis mimicking Kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus disease. Dermatologica 1991;182:1357.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 865  Marquart KH. Electron microscopy reveals fungal cells within tumor tissue from two African patients with AIDS‐associated Kaposi sarcoma. Ultrastruct Pathol 2006;30:18792.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 866  Smith KJ, Skelton HG III, Angritt P. Histopathologic features of HIV‐associated skin disease. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:5518.Pubmed link
            • 867  Bower M, Portsmouth S. HIV‐associated malignancy. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:99114.
            • 868  Bower M, Chair. British HIV Association guidelines for HIV‐associated malignancies 2014. http://www.bhiva.org/documents/Malignancy/2014/MalignancyGuidelines2014/pdf (last accessed November 2014).
            • 869  Costner M, Cockerell CJ. The changing spectrum of the cutaneous manifestations of HIV disease. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1290.Pubmed link
            • 870  Pellet C, Chevret S, Blum L, et al. Virologic and immunologic parameters that predict clinical response of AIDS‐associated Kaposi's sarcoma to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Invest Dermatol 2001;117:85863.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 871  Krown SE, Lee JY, Dittmer DP. More on HIV‐associated Kaposi's sarcoma. N Engl J Med 2007;358:5356.
            • 872  Maurer T, Ponte M, Leslie K. HIV‐associated Kaposi's sarcoma with a high CD4 count and a low viral load. N Engl J Med 2007;357:13523.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 873  Mani D, Neil N, Israel R, Aboulafia DM. A retrospective analysis of AIDS‐associated Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts greater than 300 cells/mm3. J Int Assoc Phys AIDS Care 2009;8(5):27985.Cross Ref link
            • 874  Maurer T, Leslie K, Unemori P. Response to: a retrospective analysis of AIDS‐associated Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts greater than 300 cells/mm3. J Int Phys AIDS Care 2010;9(2):73.
            • 875  Unemori P, Leslie KS, Hunt PW, et al. Immunosenescence is associated with presence of Kaposi's sarcoma in antiretroviral treated HIV infection. AIDS 2013;27(11):173542.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 876  Duvic M, Friedmany‐Kien AE, Looney DJ, et al. Topical treatment of cutaneous lesions of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome‐related Kaposi sarcoma using alitretinoin gel: results of phase 1 and 2 trials. Arch Dermatol 2000;136:14619.Pubmed link
            • 877  Scolaro MJ, Gunnill LB, Pope LE, et al. The antiviral drug docosanol as a treatment for Kaposi's sarcoma lesions in HIV type 1‐infected patients: a pilot clinical study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2001;17:3543.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 878  Langtry JAA, Bottomley DM, Phillips RH, Staughton RCD. The infra‐red coagulator in the treatment of AIDS‐related Kaposi's sarcoma and a comparison with radiotherapy. Clin Exp Dermatol 1994;19:235.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 879  Tardivo JP, Del Giglio A, Paschoel LH, Baptista MS. New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS‐related Kaposi's sarcoma. Photomed Laser Surg 2006;24:52831.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 880  Tulpule A, Groopman J, Saville MW, et al. Multicenter trial of low‐dose paclitaxel in patients with advanced AIDS‐related Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer 2002;95:14754.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 881  Gill PS, McLaughlin T, Espina BM, et al. Phase I study of human chorionic gonadotropin given subcutaneously to patents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome‐related mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:1797802.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 882  Tulpule A, Joshi B, DeGuzman N, et al. Interleukin‐4 in the treatment of AIDS‐related Kaposi's sarcoma. Ann Oncol 1997;8:7983.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 883  Koon HB, Bubley GJ, Pantanowitz L, et al. Imatinib‐induced regression of AIDS‐related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:9829.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 884  Martinez V, Tateo M, Castilla M‐A, et al. Lenalidomide in treating AIDS‐related Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS 2011;25:87880.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

            Melanoma and non‐melanoma skin cancer

            • 885  Pantanowitz L, Schlecht HPO, Dezube BJ. The growing problem of non‐AIDS‐defining malignancies in HIV. Curr Opin Oncol 2006;18:46972.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 886  Hessol NA, Pipkin S, Schwarcz S, et al. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on non‐AIDS‐defining cancers among adults with AIDS. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:114353.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 887  Bunn BK, van Heerden WFP. HIV/AIDS associated malignancies of the head and neck. J S Afr Dental Association 2012;67(10):5902.
            • 888  Crum‐Cianflone N, Hullsiek KH, Marconi V, et al. Trends in the incidence of cancers among HIV‐infected persons and the impact of antiretroviral therapy: a 20‐year cohort study. AIDS 2009;23(1):4150.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 889  Deeken JF, Tjen‐A‐Looi A, Rudek MA, et al. The rising challenge of non‐AIDS‐defining cancers in HIV‐infected patients. Clin Infect Dis 2012;55(9):122835.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 890  Hleyhel M, Belot A, Bouvier AM, et al. Risk of AIDS‐defining cancers among HIV1‐infected patients in France between 1992 and 2009: Results from the FHDH‐ANRS CO4 cohort. Clin Infect Dis 2013;57:163847.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 891  Shiels MS, Pfeiffer RM, Gail MH, et al. Cancer burden in the HIV‐infected population in the United States. Cancer Spectrum Knowl Environ 2011;103(9):75362.
            • 892  Burgi A, Brodine S, Wegner S, et al. Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non‐AIDS‐defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus‐infected individuals. Cancer 2005;104:150511.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 893  Wilkins K, Turner R, Dolev JC, et al. Cutaneous malignancy and human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;54:189206.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 894  Silverberg MJ, Leyden W, Warton EM, Quesenberry CP, Engels EA, Asgari MM. HIV infection status, immunodeficiency, and the incidence of non‐melanoma skin cancer. Cancer Spectrum Knowl Environ 2013;105(5):35060.
            • 895  Newnham A, Harris J, Evans HS, et al. The risk of cancer in HIV‐infected people in southeast England: a cohort study. Br J Cancer 2005;92:194200.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 896  Lanoy E, Costagliola D, Engels EA. Skin cancers associated with HIV infection and solid‐organ transplantation among elderly adults. Int J Cancer 2010;126:172431.Pubmed link
            • 897  Kreuter A, Weiland U, Brockmeyer NH; German Network of Competence HIV/AIDS. Genital human papillomavirus‐associated (pre‐) malignant skin diseases drastically increase in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;55:111617.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 898  De Boer WA, Danner SA. HIV infection and squamous cell carcinoma of sun exposed skin. AIDS 1990;4:91.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 899  Falter Ii KJ, Frimer M, Lavy D, Samuelson R, Shahabi S. Human papillomavirusassociated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses. Rare Tumors 2013;5(2):934.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 900  Maurer TA, Christian KV, Kerschmann RL, et al. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus‐infected patients. A study of epidemiologic risk factors, human papillomavirus, and p53 expression. Arch Dermatol 1997;133:57783.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 901  Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Pfister H, et al. Competence Network HIV/AIDS. Human papillomavirus type 26‐associated periungual squamous cell carcinoma in situ in a HIV‐infected patient with concomitant penile and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;53:7379.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 902  Sardana K, Garg VK, Arora P, Khurana N. Malignant transformation of donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) in a HIV‐positive patient. Dermatol Online J 2008;14(9):8.Pubmed link
            • 903  Brunel AS, Fraisse T, Lechiche C, Pinzani V, Mauboussin JM, Sotto A. Multifocal squamous cell carcinomas in an HIV‐infected patient with a long‐term voriconazole therapy. AIDS 2008;22(7):9056.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 904  Fearfield LA, Nelson M, Francis N, Bunker CB. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with zosteriform metastases in a human immunodeficiency virus‐infected patient. Br J Dermatol 2000;142:5734.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 905  Neves‐Motta R, Ferry FR, Basilio‐de‐Oliveira CA, et al. Highly aggressive squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV‐infected patient. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2004;37:4968.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 906  Nguyen P, Vin‐Christian K, Ming ME, Berger T. Aggressive squamous cell carcinomas in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:75863.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 907  Handisurya A, Rieger A, Bankier A, et al. Human papillomavirus type 26 infection causing multiple invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the fingernails in an AIDS patient under highly active antiretroviral therapy. Br J Dermatol 2007;157(4):78894.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 908  Ferreira CP, Valle H de A, Ferreira JA, Lima RB, Martins CJ. Giant squamous cell carcinoma in HIV‐positive patient. Braz J Infect Dis 2010;14(2):20910.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 909  Gormley RH, Groft CM, Miller CJ, Kovarik CL. Digital squamous cell carcinoma and association with diverse high‐risk human papillomavirus types. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011;64(5):9815.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 910  Garlassi E, Harding V, Weir J, et al. Nonmelanoma skin cancers among HIV‐infected persons in the HAART era. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2012;60(2):e635.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 911  Hausauer AK, Maurer T, Leslie KS, Parvataneni R, Stuart SE, Chren MM. Recurrence after treatment of cutaneous basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. JAMA Dermatol (Chicago) 2013;149(2):23941.Cross Ref link
            • 912  Introcaso CE, Rady PL, He Q, Tyring SK, Kovarik CL. Human papillomavirus type 73 associated with multiple cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in an immunosuppressed patient. Int J Dermatol 2012;51(6):71315.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 913  Turowski CB, Ross AS, Cusack CA. Human papillomavirus‐associated squamous cell carcinoma of the nail bed in African‐American patients. Int J Dermatol 2009;48:11720.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 914  Kagen MH, Hirsch RJ, Chu P, et al. Multiple infundibulocystic basal cell carcinomas in association with human immunodeficiency virus. J Cutan Pathol 2000;27:31618.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 915  Wu ML, Guitart J. Unusual neurotropism. Am J Dermatopathol 2000;22:4689.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 916  Johnson DF, Keppen M, Sitz KV. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome‐related complex. JAMA 1987;257:3403.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 917  Caron J, Dereure O, Kerob D, Lebbé C, Guillot B. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma: report of two cases treated with cetuximab. Br J Dermatol 2009;161(3):702.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 918  Gordon Spratt EA, Fischer M, Kamino H. Eruptive basal‐cell carcinomas in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Dermatol Online J 2012;18(12):1.703.
            • 919  Rodriguez EA, Jakubowicz, Chinchilla DA, et al. Porokeratosis of Mibelli and HIV‐infection. Int J Dermatol 1996;35:4024.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 920  Kotlarewsky M, Freeman JB, Cameron W, Grikmard LJ. Anal intraepithelial dysplasia and squamous carcinoma in immunosuppressed patients. Can J Surg 2001;44:4504.Pubmed link
            • 921  Welton ML, Sharkey FE, Kahlenberg MS. The etiology and epidemiology of anal cancer. Surg Oncol Clin North Am 2004;13:26375.Cross Ref link
            • 922  Pereira F, Carey W, Shibata H, et al. Multiple nevoid malignant melanomas in a patient with AIDS: the role of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the diagnosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47(Suppl. 2):S1724.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 923  Sass U, Kolivras A, André J. Malignant ‘animal‐type’ melanoma in a seropositive African man. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006;54:5478.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 924  Webster RM, Sarwar, N, Bunker CB, Brock CS. A case series of HIV‐positive patients with malignant melanoma. J HIV Ther 2007;12:758.Pubmed link
            • 925  Qasmi S, Sutra‐Loubet C, Maubec E, et al. [Melanoma in HIV patients: 14 cases.] Ann Dermatol Vénéréol 2010;137(12):76974.
            • 926  Wilkins K, Dolev JC, Turner R, et al. Approach to the treatment of cutaneous malignancy in HIV‐infected patients. Dermatol Ther 2005;18:7786.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 927  Chan SY, Madan V, Lear JT, Helbert M. Highly active antiretroviral therapy‐induced regression of basal cell carcinomas in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency and Gorlin syndrome. Br J Dermatol 2006;154:107980.Cross Ref link
            • 928  Honda KS. HIV and skin cancer. Dermatol Clin 2006;24:52130.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 929  Scott DR. Eradication of basal cell cancer in an HIV positive patient with topical imiquimod. J Drugs Dermatol 2004;3:602.Pubmed link

            Lymphoma

            • 930  Beylot‐Barry M, Vergier B, Masquelier B, et al. The spectrum of cutaneous lymphomas in HIV infection: a study of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1999;23:120816.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 931  Dal Maso L, Serraino D, Franceschi S. Epidemiology of HIV‐associated malignancies. Cancer Treatment Res 2001;104:118.Cross Ref link
            • 932  Schwartz JJ, Dias BM, Safai B. HIV‐related malignancy. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:50316.Pubmed link
            • 933  Cockerell CJ. Organ‐specific manifestations of HIV infection. II. Update on cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection. AIDS 1993;7(Suppl. 1):S21318.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 934  Villafañe MF, Corti M. Primary cutaneous B‐cell lymphoma successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy alone: a case report and review of the literature. Indian J Dermatol 2011;56(4):41820.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 935  Nador RG, Chadburn A, Gundappa G, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‐associated polymorphic lymphoproliferative disorders. Am J Surg Pathol 2003;27:293302.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 936  Häusermann P, Khanna N, Buess M, et al. Cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma in an HIV‐positive male: an unrecognised cutaneous manifestation. Dermatology 2004;208:28790.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 937  Gilberte M, Gallardo F, Bellosillo B, et al. Recurrent and self‐healing cutaneous monoclonal plasmablastic infiltrates in a patient with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma. Br J Dermatol 2005;153:82832.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 938  Aboulafia DM. HHV‐8‐ and EBV‐associated nonepidermotrophic large B‐cell lymphoma presenting as a foot rash in a man with AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2002;16:13945.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 939  Bower M, Portsmouth S. HIV‐associated malignancy. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:99114.
            • 940  Hessol NA, Pipkin S, Schwarcz S, et al. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on non‐AIDS‐defining cancers among adults with AIDS. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:114353.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 941  Porras B, Costner M, Friedman‐Kien AE, Cockerell CJ. Update on cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection. Med Clin North Am 1998;82:103380.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 942  Lallemand F, Fritsch L, Cywiner‐Golenzer C, Rozenbaum W. Multiple myeloma in an HIV‐positive man presenting with primary cutaneous plasmacytomas and spinal cord compression. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;39:5068.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 943  Rizzo M, Magro G, Castaldo P, Tucci L. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) in HIV patient: a report. Forensic Sci Int 2004;146(Suppl.):S578.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 944  Myskowski PL. Cutaneous T‐cell lymphoma and human immunodeficiency virus. The spectrum broadens. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:10457.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 945  Hivnor CM, Nguyen V, Rook AH, et al. CD8+ lymphoma in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Dermatol 2005;141:13212.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 946  Joseph LD, Panicker VK, Prathiba D, Damodharan J. Subcutaneous panniculitis‐like T cell lymphoma in a HIV positive patient. J Assoc Phys India 2005;53:31416.
            • 947  Bottieau E, Colebunders R, Schroyens W, et al. Multicentric Castleman's disease in 2 patients with HIV infection, unresponsive to antiviral therapy. Acta Clin Belg 2000;55:97101.Pubmed link
            • 948  Jonckheere S, Vandercam B, Theate I, Michaux L, Yombi JC. HIV‐associated multicentric Castleman disease: a report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Acta Clin Belg 2011;66(1):2632.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 949  Naime F de F, Fakhouri F, Martins CS, Couto WJ. HIV‐associated multicentric Castleman's disease. Rare Tumors 2012;4(3):e40.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 950  Liu W, Lacouture ME, Jiang J, et al. KSHV/HHV8‐associated primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma in a patient with Castleman's disease and Kaposi's sarcoma. J Cutan Pathol 2006;33(Suppl. 2):4651.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 951  Egbers RG, Do TT, Su L, Helfrich YR, Gudjonsson JE. Rapid clinical change in lesions of atypical cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder in an HIV patient: a case report and review of the literature. Dermatol Online J 2011;17(9):4.Pubmed link
            • 952  Fernández‐Morano T, Aguilar‐Bernier M, Del Boz J, Fúnez‐Liébana R. Cutaneous CD8+ T‐cell infiltrates associated with human immunodeficiency virus. Actas Dermo‐sifiliográficas 2012;103(7):63840.Cross Ref link

            Other neoplasms

            • 953  Inamadar AC, Palit A. Eruptive seborrhoeic keratosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection: a coincidence or ‘the sign of Leser–Trélat’. Br J Dermatol 2003;149:41946.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 954  Betlloch I, Amador C, Chiner E, et al. Eruptive melanocytic nevi in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Int J Dermatol 1991;30:303.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 955  Kanitakis J, Carbonnel E, Delmonte S, et al. Multiple eruptive dermatofibromas in a patient with HIV infection: case report and literature review. J Cutan Pathol 2000;27:546.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 956  Bachmeyer C, Cordier F, Blum L, et al. Multiple eruptive dermatofibromas after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Br J Dermatol 2000;143:13367.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 957  Castellano VM, Rodriguez‐Peralto JL, Alonso S, et al. Dermatofibroma parasitized by Leishmania in HIV infection: a new morphologic expression of dermal kala azar in an immunodepressed patient. J Cutan Pathol 1999;26:51619.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 958  Forsyth SF, Lawn SD, Miller RF, et al. Multiple dermatofibroma‐like lesions in a human immunodeficiency virus‐positive patient coinfected with visceral leishmaniasis. Br J Dermatol 2003;148:17192.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 959  Smith KJ, Yeager J, Skelton HG. Histologically distinctive papular neutrophilic xanthomas in HIV‐1 +patients. Am J Surg Pathol 1997;21:5459.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 960  Ramsay HM, Garraido MC, Smith AG. Normolipaemic xanthomas in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Br J Dermatol 2000;142:5713.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 961  Leung N, Hegele RA, Lewis GF. Rapid development of massive tendon xanthomas following highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:624.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 962  Brown CA, Lesher JL, Peterson CM. Tuberous and tendinous xanthomata secondary to ritonavir‐associated hyperlipidemia. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52(Suppl. 1):S869.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 963  Farrell A, Ross JS, Barton SE, Bunker CB. Multiple pilomatricomas and myotonic dystrophy in a patient with AIDS. Clin Exp Dermatol 1995;20:4234.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 964  Camozzato C, Basso F de O, Duquia RP, Boff AL, de Almeida HL, Jr. Facial miliary osteoma in HIV patient. Anais Bras Dermatol 2011;86(4 Suppl. 1):S668.Cross Ref link
            • 965  Blanes M, Boix V, Belinchón I, Portilla J. Angiolipomas, a rare manifestation of HIV‐associated lipodystrophy. AIDS 2008;22(4):5524.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 966  Kanitakis J, Carbonnel E, Chouvet B, et al. Cutaneous leiomyomas (piloleiomyomas) in adult patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Br J Dermatol 2000;143:133840.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 967  Chang JY‐F, Wang C‐S, Hung C‐C, et al. Multiple Epstein‐Barr virus‐associated subcutaneous angioleiomyomas in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Br J Dermatol 2002;147:5637.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 968  Tetzlaff MT, Nosek C, Kovarik CL. Epstein‐Barr virus‐associated leiomyosarcoma with cutaneous involvement in an African child with human immunodeficiency virus: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol 2011;38(9):7319.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 969  Paik AS, Lee PHA, O'Grady TC. Acquired progressive lymphangioma in an HIV‐positive patient. J Cutan Pathol 2007;34(11):8825.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 970  Bang RH, Padilla RS. Metastatic tufted angioma. Int J STD AIDS 2000;11:414.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 971  Dosal J, Nelson AM, Shelling M, Romaguera R, Poulos E, Alonso‐Llamazares J. Multiple low‐grade sarcomas of fibroblastic type in the setting of HIV and acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Am J Dermatopathol 2014;36:8436.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 972  Perrett CM, Macedo C, Francis N, Ion L, Bunker CB. Atypical fibroxanthoma in an HIV‐infected individual. J Cutan Pathol 2011;38(4):3579.Pubmed link
            • 973  Sapadin AN, Gelfand JM, Howe KL, et al. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in two patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cutis 2000;65:858.Pubmed link
            • 974  Kuwahara RT, Rudolph TM, Skinner RB, Jr, Rasberry RD. A large ulcerated tumor on the back. Diagnosis: solitary giant sebaceous carcinoma in a human immunodeficiency virus‐positive patient. Arch Dermatol 2001;137:136772.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 975  Scheinfeld N. Pilomatrical carcinoma: a case in a patient with HIV and hepatitis C. Dermatol Online J 2008;14:4.
            • 976  Engels EA, Frisch M, Goedert JJ, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma and HIV infection. Lancet 2002;359:4978.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 977  Colebunders R, Bottieau E, van den Brande J, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma and multiple basal cell carcinomas in an African albino woman with HIV infection. HIV Med 2004;5:4524.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 978  Cone LA, Gade‐Andavolu R, Lesnick RH, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma in an HIV‐1 infected man. AIDS 2006;20:4745.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 979  Izikson L, Nornhold E, Iyer JG, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma associated with HIV: review of 14 patients. AIDS 2011;25:11921.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 980  Wieland U, Kreuter A. Merkel cell polyomavirus infection and Merkel cell carcinoma in HIV‐positive individuals. Curr Opin Oncol 2011;23(5):48893.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
            • 981  Hamdan A, Dezube BJ, Pantanowitz L. Human immunodeficiency virus‐associated lung carcinoma presenting as cutaneous metastases. Clin Lung Cancer 2009;10(6):4414.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

            Special situations

              Hair and nails

              • 982  Prose NS, Abson KG, Scher RK. Disorders of the nails and hair associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Int J Dermatol 1992;31:4537.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 983  Cribier B, Mena ML, Rey D, et al. Nail changes in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. A prospective controlled study. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:121620.Pubmed link
              • 984  Bunker CB, Staughton RCD. HIV‐associated disease: dermatology. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:11539.
              • 985  Ward HA, Russo GG, Shrum J. Cutaneous manifestations of anti‐retroviral therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;46:28493.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 986  Mirmirani P, Hessol NA, Maurer TA, et al. Hair changes in women. From the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Arch Dermatol 2003;139:1056.Pubmed link
              • 987  Litt JZ. Drug Eruption Reference Manual, 18th edn. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2012.
              • 988  Kaplan MH, Dadick NS, Talmor M. Acquired trichomegaly of the eyelashes: a cutaneous marker of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991;25:8014.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 989  Alam M, Grossman ME, Longley BJ, Schneiderman PI. Kwashiorkor in patients with AIDS. Cutis 2001;67:3217.Pubmed link
              • 990  Dever LL, Matta JS. Digital clubbing in HIV‐infected patients: an observational study. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2009;23:1922.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 991  Namakoola I, Wakeham K, Parkes‐Ratanshi R, et al. Use of nail and oral pigmentation to determine ART eligibility among HIV‐infected Ugandan adults. Trop Med Int Health 2010;15(2):25962.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 992  Hira SK, Wadhawan D, Kamanga J, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of human immuno‐deficiency virus in Lusaka, Zambia. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;19:4517.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 993  Bourezane Y, Thalamy B, Viel JF, et al. Ingrown toenail and indinavir: case–control study demonstrates strong relationship. AIDS 1999;13:21812.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 994  Williams LH, Fleckman P. Painless periungal pyogenic granulomata associated with reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Br J Dermatol 2007;156:1634.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 995  Barcaui CB, Gonçalves da Silva AM, Sotto MN, Genser B. Stem cell apoptosis in HIV‐1 alopecia. J Cutan Pathol 2006;33:66771.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 996  Ostlere LS, Langtry JAA, Staughton RCD, Samrasinghe PL. Alopecia universalis in a patient seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;27:6301.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 997  Leppard B. Blue nails are a sign of HIV infection. Int J STD AIDS 1999;10:47982.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 998  Ruiz‐Avila P, Tercedor J, Rodenas JM. Periungual erythema in HIV‐infected patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;37:101819.Pubmed link
              • 999  D'Arminio Monforte A, Testa L, Gianotto M, et al. Indinavir‐related alopecia. AIDS 1998;12:328.Pubmed link
              • 1000  Colebunders R, Vandenbruaene M. The changing spectrum of the cutaneous manifestations of HIV disease. Arch Dermatol 1999;135:471.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1001  Harry TC, Matthews M, Salvary I. Indinavir use: associated reversible hair loss and mood disturbance. Int J STD AIDS 2000;11:4746.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1002  Moyle G, Gazzard BG. Nucleoside analogue reverse trancriptase inhibitors. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:31727.
              • 1003  Terheggen F, Frissen J, Weigel H, et al. Nail, hair and skin hyperpigmentation associated with indinavir therapy. AIDS 2004;18:1612.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1004  Cockerell CJ. Non‐infectious inflammatory skin diseases in HIV‐infected individuals. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:53142.Pubmed link
              • 1005  Abbasi NR, Wang N. Doxorubicin‐induced hyperpigmentation. Dermatol Online J 2008;14(10):18.Pubmed link
              • 1006  Joyner S, Lee D, Hay P, Lau R. Hydroxyurea‐induced nail pigmentation in HIV patients. HIV Med 1999;1:402.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1007  Laughon SK, Shinn LL, Nunley JR. Melanonychia and mucucutaneous hyperpigmentation due to hydroxyurea use in an HIV‐infected patient. Int J Dermatol 2000;39:92831.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

              Oro‐pharynx

              • 1008  Greenspan D, Greenspan JS. Oral manifestations of HIV infection. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:51722.Pubmed link
              • 1009  Fox RI, Liu AY. Sjögren's syndrome in dermatology. Clin Dermatol 2006;24:393413.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1010  Schiodt M. Less common oral lesions associated with HIV infection: prevalence and classification. Oral Dis 1997;3(Suppl.):S20813.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1011  Bendick C, Scheifele C, Reichart PA. Oral manifestations in 101 Cambodians with HIV and AIDS. J Oral Pathol Med 2002;31:14.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1012  Namakoola I, Wakeham K, Parkes‐Ratanshi R, et al. Use of nail and oral pigmentation to determine ART eligibility among HIV‐infected Ugandan adults. Trop Med Int Health 2010;15(2):25962.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1013  Stirling DI. Thalidomide and its impact in dermatology. Semin Cutan Med Surg 1998;17:23142.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1014  Bunker CB, Staughton RCD. HIV‐associated disease: dermatology. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:11539.
              • 1015  Dalmau J, Alegre M, Domingo P, Alomar A. Major oral aphthous ulceration on HIV‐1 infection: successful response after highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2007;21:1267.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1016  Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidosis in previously healthy homosexual men. N Engl J Med 1981;305:142530.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1017  Lilly EA, Hart DJ, Leigh JE, et al. Tissue‐associated cytokine expression in HIV‐positive persons with oropharyngeal candidiasis. J Infect Dis 2004;190:60512.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1018  Giovanni M, Zucotti GV, Fiocchi A. Gangrenous stomatitis in a child with AIDS. Lancet 1989;ii:1400.Cross Ref link
              • 1019  Jones AC, Gulley ML, Freedman PD. Necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis in human immunodeficiency virus‐seropositive individuals: a review of the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and virologic characteristics of 18 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 2000;89:32332.Cross Ref link
              • 1020  Naidoo S, Chikte UM. Noma (cancrum oris): case report in a 4‐year‐old HIV‐positive South African child. S Afr Dental J 2000;55:6836.
              • 1021  Chidzonga MM, Mahomva L. Recurrent noma (cancrum oris) in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV and AIDS): report of a case. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008;66(8):172630.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1022  Lilly EA, Cameron JE, Shetty KV, et al. Lack of evidence for local immune activity in oral hairy leukoplakia and oral wart lesions. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2005;20:15462.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1023  Pastore L, De Benedittis M, Petruzzi M, et al. Efficacy of famciclovir in the treatment of oral hairy leukoplakia. Br J Dermatol 2006;154:3789.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1024  Bhandarkar SS, MacKelfresh J, Fried L, Arbiser JL. Targeted therapy of oral hairy leukoplakia with gentian violet. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008;58:71112.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1025  Briggs A, Kinghorn GR. Nodular herpes simplex virus‐1‐positive oral lesions as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Int J STD AIDS 2010;21(5):3778.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1026  Anaya‐Saavedra G, Flores‐Moreno B, García‐Carrancá A, Irigoyen‐Camacho E, Guido‐Jiménez M, Ramírez‐Amador V. HPV oral lesions in HIV‐infected patients: the impact of long‐term HAART. J Oral Pathol Med 2013;42(6):4439.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1027  Piatelli A, Rubini C, Fiorini M, Iezzi T. Warty carcinoma of the oral mucosa in an HIV patient. Oral Oncol 2001;37:6657.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1028  Hessol NA, Pipkin S, Schwarcz S, Cress RD, Bacchetti P, Scheer S. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on non‐AIDS‐defining cancers among adults with AIDS. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:114353.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1029  Bunn BK, van Heerden WFP. HIV/AIDS associated malignancies of the head and neck. J S Afr Dent Assoc 2012;67(10):5902.
              • 1030  Miziara ID. Tuberculosis affecting the oral cavity in Brazilian HIV‐infected patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 2005;100:17982.Cross Ref link
              • 1031  Penneys MS. Skin Manifestations of AIDS. London: Martin Dunitz, 1990.Pubmed link
              • 1032  Casariego Z, Kelly GR, Perez H, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis with orofacial involvement in HIV‐1‐infected patients with AIDS: manifestation and treatment. Oral Dis 1997;3:1847.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1033  Aarestrup FM, Guerra RO, Vieira BJC, Unha RM. Oral manifestation of sporotrichosis in AIDS patients. Oral Dis 2001;7:1346.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1034  Giovani EM, Mantesso A, Loducca SV, Magalhaes MH. Paracoccidioidomycosis in an HIV‐positive patient: a case report with gingival aspects. Oral Dis 2000;6:3279.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1035  Paniago AM, de Freitas AC, Aguiar ES, et al. Paracoccidioidomycosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus: review of 12 cases observed in an endemic region in Brazil. J Infect 2005;51:24852.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1036  Cohen LM, Callen JP. Oral and labial melanotic macules in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26:6534.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1037  Moyle G, Gazzard BG. Nucleoside analogue reverse trancriptase inhibitors. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:31727.
              • 1038  Moyle G, Gazzard BG. Protease inhibitors. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:33340.
              • 1039  Litt JZ. Drug Eruption Reference Manual, 18th edn. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2012.
              • 1040  Abbasi NR, Wang N. Doxorubicin‐induced hyperpigmentation. Dermatol Online J 2008;14(10):18.Pubmed link

              Women

              • 1041  Madkan VK, Giancola AA, Sra KK, et al. Sex differences in the transmission, prevention, and disease manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases. Arch Dermatol 2006;142:36570.Pubmed link
              • 1042  Barton J, Buchness M. Nongenital dermatologic disease in HIV‐infected women. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;40:93848.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1043  Dongo M, Gonçalves LS, Ferreira SMS, et al. Gender differences in oral manifestations among HIV‐infected Brazilian adults. Int Dent J 2013;63(4):18995.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1044  Teofoli P, Barbieri C, Pallotta, S, et al. Pruritic eosinophilic papular eruption revealing HIV infection. Eur J Dermatol 2002;12:6002.Pubmed link
              • 1045  Shilad A, Predanic M, Perni SC, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus, pregnancy and Stevens‐Johnson syndrome. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:12546.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1046  Robertson C, Wiselka MJ. Thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura occurring in consecutive pregnancies in an HIV‐infected patient. Int J STD AIDS 2007;18:1423.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1047  Alonso N, Lugo‐Somolinos A, Torres‐Paoli D, Sánchez JL. Prevalence of skin disease in HIV‐positive pregnant women. Int J Dermatol 2003;42:5213.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1048  Adeyemo A, Wood C, Govind A. Kaposi's sarcoma in pregnancy after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a manifestation of immune reconstitution syndrome. Int J STD AIDS 2012;23:9056.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1049  Brunet‐Possenti F, Pagès C, Rouzier R, Dupin N, Bagot M, Lebbé C. Kaposi's sarcoma and pregnancy: case report and literature review. Dermatology 2013;226:31114.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1050  Maurer T, Rodriques LK, Ameil N, et al. The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on dermatologic disease in a longitudinal study of HIV type 1‐infected women. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:57984.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

              Children

              • 1051  Bunker CB, Staughton RCD. HIV‐associated disease: dermatology. In: Gazzard BG, ed. AIDS Care Handbook. London: Mediscript, 2002:11539.
              • 1052  Prose NS. Cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection in children. Dermatol Clin 1991;9:54350.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1053  El Hachem M, Bernardi S, Pianosi G, et al. Mucocutaneous manifestations in children with HIV infection and AIDS. Pediatr Dermatol 1998;15:42934.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1054  Laude TA. Manifestations of HIV disease in children. Clin Dermatol 2000;18:45767.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1055  Wananukul S, Deekajorndech T, Panchareon C, Thisyakorn U. Mucocutaneous findings in pediatric AIDS related to degree of immunosuppression. Pediatr Dermatol 2003;20:28994.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1056  Rennert WP. Non‐infectious cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection in children. AIDS Reader 2006;16:1035.Pubmed link
              • 1057  Bowser CS, Kaye J, Joks RO, et al. IgE and atopy in perinatally HIV‐infected children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2007;18:298303.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1058  Terranova M, Padovese V, Fornari U, Morrone A. Clinical and epidemiological study of cutaneous tuberculosis in northern Ethiopia. Dermatology 2008;217(1):8993.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1059  Gantzer A, Neven B, Picard C, et al. Severe cutaneous bacillus Calmette‐Guérin infection in immunocompromised children: the relevance of skin biopsy. J Cutan Pathol 2013;40(1):307.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1060  De Carvalho V, Marinoni LP, Martins LF, et al. Measles in children with HIV infection: report of five cases. Braz J Infect Dis 2003;7:34652.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1061  Zampogna JC, Flowers FP. Persistent verrucous varicella as the initial manifestation of HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:3914.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1062  Lowe S, Ferrand RA, Morris‐Jones R, et al. Skin disease among human immunodeficiency virus‐infected adolescents in Zimbabwe: a strong indicator of underlying HIV infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010;29(4):34651.Pubmed link
              • 1063  Lowe SM, Katsidzira L, Meys R, et al. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis due to multiple and unusual HPV infection among vertically‐infected, HIV‐positive adolescents in Zimbabwe. Clin Infect Dis 2012;54(10):e11923.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1064  Cairncross LL, Davidson A, Millar AJW, Pillay K. Kaposi sarcoma in children with HIV: a clinical series from Red Cross Children's Hospital. J Pediatr Surg 2009;44:3736.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1065  Tetzlaff MT, Nosek C, Kovarik CL. Epstein‐Barr virus‐associated leiomyosarcoma with cutaneous involvement in an African child with human immunodeficiency virus: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol 2011;38:7319.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1066  Wallet‐Faber N, Bodemer C, Blanche S, et al. Primary cutaneous Epstein‐Barr virus‐related lymphoproliferative disorders in 4 immunosuppressed children. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008;58(1):7480.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1067  Tong TK, Andrew LR, Albert A, Mickell JJ. Childhood acquired immunodeficiency syndrome manifesting as acrodermatitis enteropathica. J Pediatr 1986;108:4268.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1068  Chidzonga MM, Mahomva L. Recurrent noma (cancrum oris) in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV and AIDS): report of a case. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008;66(8):172630.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1069  Hartman K, Verweel G, de Groot R, Hartwig NG. Detection of lipoatrophy in human immunodeficiency virus‐1‐infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006;25:42731.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1070  Penneys MS. Skin Manifestations of AIDS. London: Martin Dunitz, 1990.Pubmed link
              • 1071  Paller AS, Sahn EE, Garen PD, et al. Pyoderma gangrenosum in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Pediatr 1990;117:636.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1072  Seone Reula E, Bellon JM, Gurbindo D, et al. Role of antiretroviral therapies in mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV‐infected children over a period of two decades. Br J Dermatol 2005;153:3829.Cross Ref linkPubmed link
              • 1073  Boulware D, Callens S, Pahwa S. Pediatric HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2008;3(4):4617.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

              Haemophilia

              • 1074  Ball LM, Harper JI. Atopic eczema in HIV seropositive haemophiliacs. Lancet 1987;ii:6278.Cross Ref link
              • 1075  Telfer NR, Mathews JM, Wojnarowska F. Skin diseases in haemophiliacs with and without antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): further evidence of altered disease behaviour in different risk groups? Br J Dermatol 1989;120:7959.Cross Ref linkPubmed link

              Intravenous drug use