Skin Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus
Many disorders are associated with diabetes, either directly or indirectly. Vascular damage, caused by an accumulation of advanced glycation end‐products, leads to leg ulceration, diabetic dermopathy and rubeosis. Neurological damage, due to damaged endoneurial microvessels, leads to the diabetic foot and foot ulcers. Bacterial and fungal infections are more common in diabetes. Obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia lead to skin tags, acanthosis nigricans and eruptive xanthomas. A number of autoimmune and genetic disorders are more common in those with diabetes or predispose to diabetes, including thyroid disease, vitiligo, Cushing syndrome and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. In addition, a number of disorders of uncertain pathophysiology are linked to diabetes including necrobiosis lipoidica, cheiroarthropathy, scleredema diabeticorum and diabetic bullae.
Keywords necrobiosis lipoidica, diabetic dermopathy, advanced glycation end‐products, rubeosis, diabetic foot, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, diabetic bulla, cheiroarthropathy, insulin reactions