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Figure c13/f001
Figure 13.1
A schematic representation of the stratum corneum as a brick wall. The corneocytes act as the bricks, with the intercellular lipids providing the ceme...
Figure c13/f005
Figure 13.5
Water solubilities and log P values of 91 drugs approved for topical and transdermal administration in Europe and/or the USA as a function of their mo...
Figure c13/f009
Figure 13.9
Flux of ibuprofen into human stratum corneum in vivo from three formulations [ ] in which the drug was present at its saturation concentration. PG, ...
Figure c13/f002
Figure 13.2
Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) across human skin in vivo as the stratum corneum (SC) is progressively removed by adhesive tape stripping [ ]. The ...
Figure c13/f006
Figure 13.6
Estimated maximum flux ( J max ) values for approved topical and transdermal drugs as functions of: (a) their size (MW); (b) their lipophilicity (log ...
Figure c13/f010
Figure 13.10
Stimulated Raman spectroscopic images of (a) solid ibuprofen and (b) betamethasone valerate particles crystallized on and within the outer stratum cor...
Figure c13/f003
Figure 13.3
Potential penetration pathways across the stratum corneum [ ].
Figure c13/f007
Figure 13.7
Methods, both accepted and under consideration by the regulatory authorities (see text for details), for the determination of topical bioavailability ...
Figure c13/f004
Figure 13.4
Correlation between the permeability coefficient (k p ) of water across the stratum corneum (SC) with the conformational order of the SC intercellular...
Figure c13/f008
Figure 13.8
(a) Formulation of a lipophilic drug (e.g. a corticosteroid) of low water solubility, in an aqueous gel [ ]. The profiles illustrate the manner in whi...